The water supply in some areas of the country contains toxic industrial chemicals up to 10 times the concentration considered to be within safety limits. Air pollution is also a significant environmental problem in the Ukraine. In , Ukraine had the world's seventh-highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled In , the total had dropped significantly to million metric tons. The pollution of the nation's water has resulted in large-scale elimination of the fish population, particularly in the Sea of Azov.
As of , only 1. Fifteen mammal species, 10 bird species, and 20 plant species are threatened, including the European bison, the Russian desman, and the Dalmatian pelican. Toggle navigation. Photo by: clarity. User Contributions: 1. Thanks a lot! It really helped me to write a topic and I hope it'll help me to pass my English. Asia: I fully agree with you I'm from Ukraine and I don't really rely on our government It seems to me they covered more information from their people.
Good job! I am from Ukraine but it amazing! So I must add some becouse you need 50! Oh my god thank you so much! Your article really helped me out with a civics project Thanks Again. Thank you for this Great information this has really helped my social studies project on Ukraine. George Cotzas. Thanks so much for this!! It was extremely helpful with my homework. Water that flows through the taps today is cleared using the old standards.
The air pollution. The highest air pollution in Kiev is observed in areas adjacent to highways and intersections — in Leningradskiy, Bessarabskiy, Moscowskiy, and Kharkovskiy districts. Reduction of the animal and plant world. The problem of litter and waste. This is due to the fact that we do not recycle the trash, but simply warehouse it or burn.
The consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Since the year in Ukraine there were registered cases of thyroid cancer-infected people who at the time of the accident were kids or teenagers. All these problems are awful, but I consider that at the moment the main pollution is made by war, and it does the greatest harm on the surrounding district in the eastern part of the country.
Funding available for improving the conditions within the water sector is insufficient. Enterprises and households have traditionally paid far too little for the services provided by the water utilities. Level of water tariffs has been low. In fact, due water tariff payments have not even been able to cover operation and maintenance costs of the water utilities.
This is still the case. Water utilities experienced an increase in non-payments by enterprises and organisations within certain sectors. In recent years, non-payments have, however, decreased. The present urban water supply system is, among others, characterised by: Insufficient water resource protection, partly due to insufficient sludge treatment and disposal.
High energy consumption caused by oversized and inadequate pipe layout at pumping stations, old and low efficient pumping systems, lack of proper pressure zoning. Very poor condition of pipe networks and hydraulic imbalances in network resulting in unacceptable high water losses in network, insufficient pressure and poor water quality.
Insufficient metering of water abstraction, supply and consumption. No incentive for water utilities to aim at water and energy conservation. The water utilities still rely on a "produce and sell" approach instead of a "sense and respond" approach, where the customers are in focus. The present rural water supply system is, among others, characterised by: Low coverage with centralised water supply systems.
Deteriorating groundwater quality owing to insufficient environmental protection. Poor condition of pipe networks. Very high non-compliance to chemical and bacteriological parameters in shallow wells owing to pollution of groundwater and surface infiltration into the dug wells.
The high water consumption that exists side by side with breakdowns, leakages and scheduled water supply may be explained by the above-mentioned low level of tariffs levied on the enterprises and households and also the general lack of individual water meters. Furthermore, it may be explained by the fact that the existing hot water system often serves several households or even entire residential zones, which makes it necessary for the individual household to release a large volume of water before the heated water arrives at the household.
This problem also contributes to high costs for the central heating of the water. Since total water abstraction has decreased by nearly 50 per cent. Surface water and groundwater abstracted have decreased by 50 and 43 per cent, respectively. The far most important reason for this decrease is the output decline within industry and agriculture. It is not owing to increased efficiency in water use. Waste water discharges constitute a major pollution source regarding surface water bodies.
Only a fraction of waste water discharges are satisfactorily treated. The main receiving surface water bodies for waste water discharges from industries, agriculture and cities and settlements are the rivers and the Black Sea. The vast majority of the rivers drain into the Black Sea; only a few drain into the Baltic Sea.
The total waste water discharges constitute 13 per cent of the total run-off into the receiving surface water bodies, foremost rivers. The most important of these are the following: hydrogeological conditions hardness and also content of solid residual, iron, manganese, fluorine, ammonia, chlorides and others ; overexploitation; and contamination due to infiltration of pollutants through the discharge of untreated waste water on the ground, leachate from waste dumps, inappropriate handling of pesticides and chemical fertilisers, spread of liquid wastes from animal farms, draining of water from mines to lower aquifers and leakages from large jet fuel and oil storage facilities within the military.
In many cases, the present groundwater quality necessitates advanced treatment of the water before consumption. The most urgent investment needs regarding water resources and water supply taking into consideration the above-mentioned problems concern the following: Upgrading of the physical infrastructure, such as pumping stations, treatment plants and distribution systems, including hot water systems.
Installation of individual water meters. Upgrading of equipment for monitoring water quality, leakages and energy consumption in order to document needed improvements. Total capital cost requirements of achieving hour supply service level and also fulfilling the EU water quality standards with a national coverage of 78 per cent for centralised water supply have been estimated at EUR billion.
It covers the connection of an additional 6. Anticipating a spread of the investments over a time horizon of about 20 years, the average cost per capita totals EUR per year, corresponding to EUR per capita for the entire period from to Total capital cost requirements of improving the operational safety of the centralised water supply system has been estimated at EUR billion EUR.
It is envisaged that investments may be carried out from to The average cost per capita totals EUR for the entire period from to The environmental policy reform initiatives in Ukraine within the water sector mentioned in Section 2. Consequently, it is important in the short to medium term to ensure further progress in the development and successful implementation of these initiatives.
Furthermore, there is a need to eliminate existing contradictions, voids and uncertainties within the legal framework and also to focus the required secondary legislation. The water resource classification scheme should be in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. The comprehensive water quality monitoring initiative that was initiated by the MENR, Ministry of Health and State Committee on Water Resources in as part of the preparation of the state programme for water sector development provides a solid basis for such a legal reform.
Water quality standards, including the potable water standards, should be changed so that they correspond to the EU standards. An important step in this direction has, in fact, already been made with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine "On Potable Water and Potable Water Supply" in However, Article 27 in the law may be slightly revised in order to ensure compliance with the EU standards.
Furthermore, there is a need to implement the law. Most important is to ensure decentralisation and commercialisation of the water utilities. They should operate with managerial and accounting independence from municipalities, full cost recovery through water tariffs should be introduced, and they should be allowed to cut-off customers, who do not pay.
Furthermore, non-core businesses, such as sanatoria, should be hived off so that the water utilities may concentrate on core business only. Such a reform constitutes an important prerequisite for the emergence of water utilities that are financial viable, may carry out investments needed and are focused on customer demands and customer relations. Two international environmental agreements are of particular importance since they pose Ukraine with some additional challenges but also offer some possibilities.
These are the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, which Ukraine has ratified, and the Protocol on Water and Health, which Ukraine has signed but not yet ratified. Thus, they constitute an important area for regional co-operation in accordance with the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes.
Ukraine has specific agreements on transboundary waters with the Belarus, Moldova, Poland, Slovakia and Russia. It is important to further strengthen this regional co-operation in transboundary river basin management not just on the technical, but also on the administrative level.
Here the EU Water Framework Directive may serve as a valuable source of inspiration to all parties involved. It focuses on river basin management plans as best models for a single system of water management instead of according to administrative or political boundaries.
It is envisaged that Ukraine will ratify the Protocol on Water and Health in the near future. Then, Ukraine has to take appropriate actions aimed at ensuring: adequate supplies of wholesome drinkingwater; adequate sanitation to a standard that sufficiently protects human health and the environment; effective protection of water resources used as sources of drinking water and also of their related water ecosystems; adequate safeguards for human health against water-related diseases; and effective systems for monitoring and responding to outbreaks or incidents of water-related diseases.
Regulatory framework. In order to meet the challenges that follow from the problems regarding water resources and water supply it is important that the environmental authorities and water utilities are capable of designing and carrying out certain measures.
The environmental authorities should take the lead in developing and implementing the required changes in the legal framework and also the various strategies, plans and state programmes. Furthermore, they should aim at ensuring compliance with the requirements established by, among others, the revised water quality standards.
That is, they should focus on monitoring, enforcement, economic incentives, liability and compliance promotion. In this context it seems important to improve the early warning systems further. Finally, they should promote water conservation by all means. In order to carry out these different measures they should further develop the working relations between each other and with the water utilities, industry, agriculture, NGOs, neighbouring countries and others.
This is an important prerequisite for progress in reform. The water utilities should introduce international accounting standards, management information systems and also performance based service contracts or private sector involvement through specially designed management contracts. Certainly, excessive top management and staff training will be needed. The introduction of full cost recovery through water tariffs at the water utilities constitutes a separate challenge that has to be properly addressed by the environmental authorities, water utilities and others.
Care should be taken to ensure that customers can afford to pay. In Kiev, for instance, it will be difficult ceteris paribus to increase the water tariffs for residential consumers, as they already amount to more than four per cent of their expenditures. Here it makes sense to make a special effort to lower water consumption, while at the same increasing water tariffs. In general there is a need to introduce measures providing social protection for the vulnerable, including a better targeting of social benefits.
Energy costs constitute the most important cost component in most water utilities. Current pump equipment is often too large and inefficient. Large-scale energy savings are possible through rehabilitation of pumping stations. Water conservation will reduce the energy costs and also reduce investments in rehabilitation and renewal of pumping stations.
Public awareness should be much further improved through, among others, improved transparency in monitoring. It is important that the general public knows about possible impacts on environment and human health of the pollution of water bodies. Likewise, it is important that the general public knows about the pollution levels. Improved information about pollution levels will not only promote public awareness and thereby pollution mitigation but also diminish existing environmental psycho stress, which seems widespread in Ukraine.
The most important problems related to waste water are: Insufficient treatment of waste water. Frequent breakdowns. Insufficient sludge handling. High energy consumption within the waste water sector. In the following sections these four problems are explained one by one.
In Yalta, those beaches that are located near the waste water discharge points are closed for swimming. Signs on the beaches say "Swimming Prohibited! Similar signs can be seen on the beaches along the Black Sea coastal line from Yalta to Odessa.
From time to time people, who defy the prohibition to swim at the beaches in question, are hospitalised, usually due to cholera bacteria. Insufficient treatment of waste water. Today, total waste water discharges into the surface water bodies, foremost rivers, amounts to approximately 11 billion m 3 per year. Approximately 35 per cent of total waste water discharges originate from waste water treatment plants, 58 per cent from industry and 7 per cent from agriculture.
However, only a fraction of the total discharges are satisfactorily treated. Most likely only 20 per cent of the total discharges, corresponding to 2. Consequently, waste water discharges contribute significantly to the pollution of the receiving surface water bodies. For information, total waste water discharges have decreased by 45 per cent since , when they amounted to a little more than 19 billion m 3.
This reduction, which benefits the environment, is due to reduced discharges from industry. The waste water treatment plants, which constitute a part of the water utilities, are normally designed with mechanical and biological treatment for removal of organic matter. In most cases nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorus, are not removed.
The vast majority of the plants do not comply with established effluent limit values or discharge limits , whether Ukrainian discharge limits or EU discharge limits. It results in excessive pollution loads discharged to receiving waters with subsequent risk of health hazards, eutrofication and oxygen depletion.
A particular problem is that some waste water treatment plants actually do not operate at all due to lack of financial sources for, among others, spare parts. They simply receive the waste water and discharge it untreated into the rivers. Map 3. Furthermore, it provides an overview of the percentage shares of waste water discharged meeting the established Ukrainian effluent limit values, not meeting these and not treated at all. It follows that most waste water is discharged in the eastern regions, where mines and heavy industry are located, and also that the waste water in these regions, to a higher degree than in other regions, is treated insufficiently or not at all.
The waste water collection system sewer network , which also constitutes a part of the water utilities, is generally of poor quality and seriously deteriorated due to lack of repair and maintenance. Leaking sewers pose a considerable threat to aquifers and surface water bodies, polluting the drinking water supply as well as the receiving water bodies. Sewer pumping stations face frequent breakdowns, which in combination with sewer blockages result in severe overflows.
In November , untreated waste water from the Cherkassy City Tuberculosis Hospital was discharged directly into the Dniepro river in large volumes. The Dniepro river is the main source of drinking water for the population of Ukraine. The reason for the event, which was well covered in Ukrainian media, was a major leakage of the waste water pipes. The frequent breakdowns or serious blockages of pipes that require action by the emergency teams illustrate the bad condition of the sewers.
The number of serious emergency incidents recorded is on average 1. This is far more than in the EU countries. The infiltration rate of 20 per cent also indicates the bad condition of the sewers. It is estimated that approximately 40 per cent of the pumps in urban areas are in urgent need of replacement. A major problem associated with waste water treatment is the insufficient sludge handling and sludge disposal.
The sludge is often poorly stabilised and contains large concentrations of heavy metals and other heavily degradable pollutants. It is typically stored in large lagoons located close to cities and towns. They impose a risk for contamination of the streams and rivers due to frequent overflows and of aquifers due to pollutants seeping into the ground.
Energy consumption within the waste water sector is very high. Thus, potential energy savings is big. The potential energy savings on waste water treatment pants are estimated at per cent. The total potential energy savings on a national aggregated level are in the range of million kWh per year. The water sector has for several years faced several obstacles to development. Physical water supply and waste water facilities have deteriorated to a degree where substantial investments are required simply to stop further deterioration.
More than 80 per cent of the urban waste water produced in the municipal sector is treated at mechanical-biological waste water treatment plants. Their average age is approximately 25 years. They are simply outdated. Unsurprisingly, it leads to insufficient treatment of urban waste water, even when the urban waste water is actually treated at the waste water treatment plants.
In the rural areas, the situation is even worse, although available information is limited. Two characteristic features are the low coverage of centralised waste water treatment systems less than 10 per cent and the lack of interest from the side of environmental authorities to waste watertreatment. In fact, the more than 14 million people that live in rural areas are responsible themselves for handling and discharge of their waste water.
Furthermore, only 40 per cent of the waste water collected by the centralised waste water treatment systems in rural areas is properly treated before being discharged into the receiving waters. On the contrary, it makes monitoring and enforcement regarding waste water almost impossible.
The problem is that the effluent limit values for individual polluters, which are established in permits based upon the water quality standards, are so strict that they are quite impossible to enforce. In comparison with the EU legislation they are even stricter than the water quality standards.
Consequently, so-called temporary effluent limit values, which are not envisioned in the legislation, and which are negotiable on a case by case basis as part of the permitting process, are used in practice, thereby increasing the discretionary power of the environmental authorities.
They are much less strict than the EU discharge limits. Though they are claimed to be temporary they are, in fact, not. In fact, it has produced the opposite effect to the one intended by the regulators: the requirements are perceived as unjust and overly burdensome, inducing the regulated community to avoid complying with them. The attempts to fix the system by introducing temporary limits have also failed. Consequently, belief in the regulatory system has been greatly undermined and a regulatory culture of non-compliance is perpetuated.
Several attempts have been made to make the system of effluent limit values more realistic and therefore easier to monitor and enforce, but so far in vain. In , the Cabinet of Ministers adopted a resolution that introduced new effluent limit values for wastewater treatment plants in order to converge with the requirements of the EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive.
They impose the same requirements on all waste water treatment plants regardless of the status of receiving water bodies. They are, however, still more stringent than the corresponding EU discharge limits. It follows from Table 3. The entire waste water collection system in Ukraine consists of approximately 47, km of pipes and pumping stations with pumps. More than 10, km of these are officially reported to be in a state of emergency and need urgently to be replaced in order to avoid breakdowns.
The percentage share of pipes in urban areas officially assessed to be in a state of emergency is illustrated in Figure 3. As can be seen there is a need to replace more than 20 per cent of all pipes in urban areas in 11 out of the 27 regions. Only in two regions there is a need to replace less than 10 per cent. The situation could hardly be much worse. The many years of insufficient maintenance and upgrading of the physical infrastructure within the water sector, including the water supply sector, have led to this situation, which impacts on the drinking water quality, contamination of water resources and waste water treatment.
Consequently, there is a need to increase investments within the water sector substantially in the very near future to avoid a complete breakdown of the sector. This is referred to as the investment backlog. It poses an enormous challenge to the environmental authorities, water utilities and others since the magnitude of the investment backlog is big.
One of the most difficult issues has to do with the level of ambitions that the country should aim for. Should Ukraine aim for an upgrading of the physical infrastructure within the water sector along the EU requirements?
Or should it lower the level of ambitions? And in case the last option is chosen: Who should benefit and who should not benefit from an increase in investments? Regarding the urban water sector, including urban water supply, it is estimated that investments totalling EUR 24 billion have to be made during the next 10 years if the physical infrastructure should meet EU requirements.
Even if water tariffs are assumed to be substantially increased, Ukraine will be short of some EUR 14 billion. It seems unrealistic, although the national and regional governments, environmental funds, international organisations and private investors may close part of the cumulative funding gap. As an alternative, the level of ambitions could be lowered meaning that funding available will be targeted at certain cities, towns or rural areas, certain water supply systems and certain waste water treatment plants.
It seems more realistic. Sludge drying and sludge incineration are not applied in Ukraine. The reason for this is that these technologies are fairly expensive. Only sludge disposal is applied. Consequently, stored sludge volumes increase from year to year.
The number of sludge lagoons is limited. As a result, the storage capacities of the sludge lagoons are often exhausted leading to storage at nearby fallow fields, which is, in fact, illegal. The sludge lagoons are improperly designed; for instance, they do not have plastic liners, which are common at sludge lagoons in the EU countries. Furthermore, they suffer seriously from insufficient maintenance and upgrading.
The high energy consumption within the waste water sector is closely connected with the fact that waste water treatment plants are old and outdated. In particular, the efficiency of the waste water pumping systems is low, aeration systems are inefficient, and means of process control are poor or absent.
The lack of full automation power consumption also contributes to the high energy consumption at the waste water treatment plants. The efficiency of waste water pumping systems is estimated to be in the range of per cent. Through proper designs and equipment it may be increased to per cent. The most urgent investment needs regarding waste water taking into consideration the above-mentioned problems concern the following: Rehabilitation of sewer system with priority to replacement of pipes, either by no-dig methods or by replacement of sewer pipes.
Replacement of sewer pumps with modern pumps in order to reduce the number of breakdowns and to decrease the present high energy consumption. Upgrading of existing and construction of new waste water treatment plants, including installation of new less energy consuming equipment. Improved sludge handling, including implementation of sludge drying and sludge incineration facilities.
Upgrading of existing and construction of new sludge lagoons, including installation of aerobic stabilisation, sludge dewatering by mechanical dewatering facilities for major waste water treatment plants or sludge drying beds for minor waste water treatment plants and plastic liners. Assuming a spread of the investments over a time horizon of about 20 years, the average cost per capita totals EUR per year, corresponding to EUR per capita for the entire period from to Investments can roughly be divided into wastewater network 61 per cent , wastewater pumping systems 2 per cent and wastewater and sludge treatment 37 per cent.
The two biggest cost generating components in the directive are the extension of sewerage systems so that all households in towns with more than inhabitants are connected and the proper treatment of all collected waste water. The envisaged and proposed changes in the legal framework mentioned in Sections 2. Water utilities in Ukraine deal with water supply, sewer systems and waste water treatment.
The capability of these to operate on a commercial basis is of utmost importance in order to address the above-mentioned problems related to the waste water sector, as well. Furthermore, attention should be given to the standards, foremost the effluent limit values, role of various stakeholders and secondary legislation. The existing system of overly stringent effluent limit values should be drastically changed as soon as possible to make it more realistic, taking into consideration what is technological and economic feasible, easier to monitor and enforceable.
Furthermore, other standards, such as sludge handling and disposal standards, should be changed. The relevant stakeholders include all the ministries, state committees, regional governments, water utilities and enterprises that are involved in the overall development of the water sector.
There is a need to develop secondary legislation in terms of specific, consistent implementing regulations, procedures and guidelines. Some guidelines could provide user-friendly information to the water utilities on best available techniques within the EU, including staffing level, parameters of certain services and maintenance requirements.
In order to ensure compliance with the requirements established by the revised legal framework the environmental authorities, foremost the MENR and State Committee on Housing and Municipal Economy, should improve cooperation between each other and take certain measures aimed at, at least, avoiding a complete breakdown of the water sector, including the water supply sector. In particular, they should elaborate, approve and implement a financing strategy for the water sector and ensure that the reporting system works properly.
Furthermore, it should specify how the investments might be financed. Close co-operation with international organisations in developing the investment projects could be established to ensure that project documentation is adequate. Most important is, however, that authorities involved in environmental policy-making and implementation, including the MENR, State Committee on Housing and Municipal Economy and Ministry of Finance, work closely together with each other on the development of the financing strategy, and also that they involve others, including regional and local governments, in the work.
It is important to the environmental authorities, public utilities and general public that such data upon which they may act exist. If they do not, it is, among others, impossible to increase public awareness, including an increased understanding of why water is not provided free of charge. The most important problems related to hazardous waste are: High level of generation of hazardous waste. Lack of hazardous waste treatment facilities and safe deposit facilities.
In the following these two problems are explained one by one. The volume of hazardous waste generated in Ukraine is high. In , it amounted to It corresponds to 1. As can be seen from Figure 3. It is, however, worth noticing that the decrease has been less than the output decline. In other words, hazardous waste generation per unit of GDP has increased. The hazardous waste is generated in few regions. The reason for this is that hazardous waste generation is closely linked to the mining industry, which is located in the three regions.
Mining waste accounted for as much as 88 per cent of hazardous waste generated in Historically, approximately 2. Other industrial waste accounted for 10 per cent of hazardous waste generated in , and municipal waste accounted for only 2 per cent. In , 0. The most dangerous types of hazardous waste are those containing heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and obsolete agricultural chemicals. Only about half of hazardous waste assigned to Classes I and II undergo special treatment recycling or rendering safe ; the remainder is either stored on the enterprise sites or dumped at landfills together with hazardous waste assigned to Classes III and IV and the bulk of non-hazardous industrial waste.
In Ukraine, official statistics regarding hazardous waste suffer from some serious weaknesses, which has to be kept in mind by the reader. Most important is that data are calculated, inconsistent and inaccurate. It is estimated that official statistics underestimate volumes of hazardous waste generated seriously. This is a problem to the environmental authorities when developing waste management strategies. Data are mainly calculated rather than measured.
That is, the volume of hazardous waste generated within a certain industry is derived by using simple coefficients; for instance input-output coefficients that relate the volume of hazardous waste generated to the each unit of final product. Data based upon measured weight of hazardous waste actually generated are very unusual. Furthermore, the classification system is not always applied in the same way; for instance, municipal solid waste may be classified as either Class IV or inert waste.
Lack of hazardous waste treatment and safe deposit facilities. There is a profound lack of an effective nation-wide infrastructure for hazardous waste collection, treatment and disposal systems. Consequently, many regions experience severe difficulties in handling and disposal of hazardous waste.
Illegal dumping of wastes fly tipping is common. Illegal disposal of waste in operational quarries also occurs. Illegal disposal of wastes is not included in official statistics. Only very few treatment and disposal facilities are properly designed. Furthermore, many enterprises have to store hazardous waste on their own sites.
In general, the solid waste, including hazardous waste, is not stored and disposed of according to existing Ukrainian standards. Storage of hazardous waste on environmentally unsafe sites means release of pollutants into the environment.
The pollutants can be borne by the wind to the environment and residential areas. In any case the environment will be affected and the risk that human health will be affected, foremost through drinking water supply, is high. Many landfills and dumpsites for municipal waste also accept industrial waste. Dumping of hazardous waste assigned to Classes I and II at these dumpsites is frequently reported.
Furthermore, it is estimated that approximately 1 million tons of industrial waste are dumped annually at unauthorised dumpsites. A special problem is the , ton of obsolete and banned pesticides and fertilisers, which are extremely toxic and accumulated all over the country. They are stored in centralised facilities and on about sites on land that belong to different agricultural farms, production and trading companies.
Old and poorly maintained industrial plants and lack of effective monitoring and enforcement of existing regulations constitute the basic causes for the present high level of generation of hazardous waste in Ukraine. There is only one engineered landfill in Ukraine, Kiev No 5, and even this is said to be leaking leachate into an aquifer. It is not built according to current best practice. The disposal fee for the site is about EUR 2.
Today, Ukraine has an estimated landfills and dumpsites, including for municipal waste, covering an area of km 2. Most of them are so-called surface dumpsites or waste heaps , where industrial waste has been dumped for years.
Most industrial dumpsites are located next to the plants generating the waste in order to minimise transportation distance. Environmental considerations have played virtually no role, when deciding where to locate them. Land dumping of waste without any form of pre-treatment to reduce their harmfulness is the dominant form of disposal for all types of waste, including municipal waste to be dealt with in Section 3. The cost to the waste producer of this method of waste management is virtually nothing.
Most sites are largely unsupervised, there is no filling plan, and wastes are dumped in a haphazard manner with no compaction or capping after dumping. No restoration or aftercare of the site is undertaken after tipping operations have been completed. The mass media have frequent reports on accidents believed to be related to environmentally unsafe storage of hazardous waste.
However, data on such accidents are very incomplete. When Ukraine signed the agreement to disarm from nuclear weapons, large amount of equipment was dismounted, demolished or just "hidden" away, covered by soil and so on. The remains are quite toxic soil polluted with rocket fuel , or can become toxic when handled improperly PCV cover of electrical cables, when burned.
Outbreaks of various diseases among people living in areas, where such equipment has been dismounted, have created a fear among many Ukrainian people that the remains have not been handled properly. One obstacle often seen in the process of preparing the remediation plans for a specific waste site is the undefined ownership of the waste site. Most of the landfills and dumpsites for hazardous waste belong to the industrial enterprises.
Dumping waste on these sites requires a permit to be issued by the environmental authorities or the regional or local administration after various consultations with other authorities, such as branch offices of the Ministry of Health. These environmental authorities and administrations are in charge of establishing standards and regulations.
However, the activities of these are not properly co-ordinated. Often there is no clear division of powers and responsibilities. On the contrary, one may find that environmental authorities and administrations, even, for instance, environmental authorities at different levels national, regional and local compete in becoming the authority issuing a permit since the permit itself and subsequent monitoring and enforcement provides a legal revenue.
In many cases, industrial enterprises even have to pay bribe. The most urgent investment needs regarding hazardous waste concern the following: Cleaner technologies to be applied in hazardous waste generating sectors. Establishment of environmental safe storage sites for hazardous waste. Remediation of waste sites polluting the environment with hazardous waste. Due to the absence of reliable data regarding hazardous waste generated and also environmentally unsafe dumpsites for hazardous waste, no reliable estimate of the total capital cost requirements can be made.
The investment strategy related to the remediation of dumpsites must focus on hot spots in order to address the sites posing the highest risks to environment and human health. The Law of Ukraine "On National Hazardous Waste Management Program", which was adopted in , takes all the provisions of the Basel Convention into account, including the principles that waste shall be disposed of at the source and that the generation of waste shall be minimised at all levels.
It is important to ensure that this law will be properly implemented at all levels national, regional and local. To this end it is necessary to prepare much needed secondary legislation. Five further measures seem particular important with regard to an improvement of the legal framework. First, there is an urgent need to define the ownership of the landfills and dumpsites, including the old waste sites, which do not belong to industrial enterprises.
This is a precondition for any progress regarding remediation activities and other upgrading of the waste sites. No one will invest in a waste site as long as it is unclear to whom it belongs. Second , the legal framework regarding the landfills and dumpsites for hazardous waste that belong to industrial enterprises should be further developed.
The announced decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers mentioned in Section 3. Third, existing permitting system should be streamlined to limit the room for discretionary decisions by various authorities. Fourth , the powers and responsibilities of authorities and administrations involved in hazardous waste management should be made quite clear to strengthen the rule of law.
Fifth , specially designed legislation should promote the exchange of hazardous waste data between sectors and organisations involved in waste management and also the further improvement of official statistics regarding hazardous waste. The environmental authorities in Ukraine face a huge challenge with respect to the protection of environment and human health against the potential risks in the short to long term from hazardous waste.
The major objectives are to: reduce the volume of hazardous waste generated; establish environmentally safe collection, treatment and storage systems; and eliminate risks from presently unsafe landfills and dumpsites. These objectives can not be achieved overnight. Take, for instance, the last mentioned objective. Not all of them can be closed down immediately. Instead, the environmental authorities may improve monitoring and enforcement of the unsafe sites to prevent accidents and also provide advice on how to operate the unsafe sites.
Two measures that concern the regulatory framework seem of utmost importance if Ukraine should succeed in achieving the three objectives. These concern the improvement of the reporting system and the elaboration of an operational hazardous waste management plan covering the whole of Ukraine. The MENR should, together with the Statistics Ukraine and possibly others, take the lead in collecting, processing and analysing firm and reliable data on hazardous waste generated as well as on the operation of the landfills and dumpsites.
An inventory of hazardous waste disposed earlier should be developed. All contaminated waste sites represent a threat to the environment and to the human health. The large and urgent challenge is to establish knowledge of the location and content of the sites and based on this to identify those waste sites posing immediate and high risks. Today, this knowledge is absent.
The elaboration of an operational hazardous waste management plan covering the whole of Ukraine and its subsequent implementation is of utmost importance. It should take into account what is technical and economic feasible to the environmental authorities, enterprises and public utilities. It should set the realistic targets for reducing the volumes of hazardous waste generated, improving collection, treatment and storage systems and eliminating the risks from presently unsafe landfills and dumpsites.
Finally, it should highlight the powers and responsibilities of the stakeholders involved in its implementation, provide robust estimates of entailed costs and include a precise financing strategy. The hazardous waste management plan should be widely disseminated so that the public awareness about the possible impacts on environment and human health of hazardous waste generation increases and also ways out. It is important that not only hazardous waste producers but also the general public is informed.
The most important problems related to municipal waste are: Increasing volumes of municipal waste. Poor municipal waste collection services. Improper disposal of municipal waste. Today municipal waste generation in Ukraine is estimated at kg per capita on an annual basis.
Furthermore, it is expected to increase much further in future following the increase in economic growth. The total volume of accumulated municipal waste in Ukraine is estimated at 3. Even though a large portion of the municipal waste or municipal solid waste could be recycled or recovered, most of the collected waste is disposed at landfills.
Limited efforts are made at minimising the volumes of municipal waste generated. Thus, adverse environmental impacts of disposing waste at landfills increase. Furthermore, costs linked with the collection, transport and disposal of the waste increase as the volumes of municipal waste generated increase. Coverage of waste collection services is limited in many cities and towns.
A considerable portion of the municipal waste generated is disposed through illegal dumping with adverse impacts on environment and human health. Improper contracts with private waste collectors, which are insufficiently monitored by the environmental authorities, often result in the build-up of illegal dumpsites.
Approximately 10 million tons of municipal waste is generated yearly in the larger cities and towns. Most of the waste is disposed at the about landfills and dumpsites for municipal waste. These are located fairly close to the points of generation with little consideration, if any, given to the environmental impacts. They are often improperly located with regard to hydrogeological conditions. Furthermore, they are improperly designed and operated. In addition, there are a large number of abandoned dumpsites, which still cause adverse impacts on environment and human health.
It is estimated that as much as 95 per cent of the landfills and dump-sites accept industrial waste and some also medical and hazardous waste of different kinds. The public has free access to most of the approximately landfills and dumpsites for municipal waste since they are neither fenced nor properly supervised. In fact, many poor people go there and take whatever they need for a living; some even live next to them.
Economic development generally leads to changes in consumption patterns and lifestyle changes, which affect the volumes of municipal waste generated. It is common that the ratio of food waste decreases with economic development, whereas consumption of pre-processed and ready-made food increases. Packaging waste increases due to increased consumption of packaged food and goods. Public awareness in Ukraine regarding the costs and also health and environmental problems associated with generation and associated handling and disposal of municipal waste is generally poor.
It follows that most waste is generated in a belt stretching from west to east. Municipal waste is usually discharged as mixed waste, without any separation at source. This in itself makes it difficult to increase the low recycling rate. As a result, most of the collected municipal waste is disposed at landfills or dumpsites.
Certainly, it contributes to a wasteful use of precious natural resources. Collected waste fees do not provide a revenue stream capable of covering the operation and maintenance costs of a proper municipal waste collection service system, not to speak about investments.
Furthermore, funding available from the government budgets, foremost the regional government budgets, is limited. Consequently, waste collection services are rather poor. The condition of the waste containers provides a striking example. Broken containers and containers without lids are plenty in any city or town.
They seriously decrease the efficiency of the waste collection services provided. In areas, typically villages, not covered by waste collection services, the waste producers often resort to local burning and illegal dumping of waste.
In the past, waste collection services in most cities and towns were entirely provided by municipally owned public utilities. However, in recent years various forms of private sector participation have been introduced in the bigger cities, which constitute the more profitable areas for waste collection services. Unfortunately, improper forms of contracting and insufficient enforcement of environmental standards have contributed to a worsening of the waste collection services and even build-up of illegal dumpsites.
It has become a common practice that private waste collection companies collect waste fees directly from the waste producers for both collection and disposal, thereby providing the private waste collection companies with an incentive not to bring the waste to the authorised landfill or dumpsite, where they are charged a tipping fee.
Illegal dumping by private waste collection companies is frequently reported. All over Ukraine, foremost outside the big cities, illegal dumping of municipal waste takes place. One only has to take a drive along some of the major radial roads to find an example. Disposal of waste is in many cases carried out at landfills and dump-sites that are improperly located, mainly in terms of hydrogeological conditions and distance to water bodies, wells and aquifers. Thus, many landfills and dumpsites, in fact, constitute a serious threat to valuable water resources.
Furthermore, the vast majority of the landfills and dumpsites, of which many date years back, are not properly designed with regard to surface water diversion, leachate collection and treatment and also landfill gas management. The operation of many landfills and all dumpsites is not carried out with a view to minimise the adverse impacts on environment and human health. Today private companies are operating some landfills and dumpsites.
However, the municipalities or local administrations are operating the vast majority. There is often no or only very limited control of the municipal waste brought to the landfills and dumpsites, which can result in uncontrolled disposal of hazardous waste. Waste is often disposed over large areas rather than in small well-defined cells and without proper soil cover. This may result in wind dispersal of waste, odour nuisances and presence of rodents and vectors. It may also contribute to a large leachate generation.
Proper operation of leachate collection and treatment systems and gas management systems is uncommon. The landfills and dumpsites are usually not fenced. Fires and subsidence are common. Only very few of the landfills and dumpsites meet even the most basic requirements of modern landfilling as they are laid down in, for instance, EU Directives.
The most urgent investment needs regarding municipal waste concern the following: Closure or upgrading of existing landfills and dumpsites and construction of new landfills. Introduction of recycling systems, including introduction of material recovery facilities and composting facilities.
Upgrading of the collection service systems, including installation of new containers. It is very difficult to estimate the total capital cost requirements. As a comparison, the total capital cost requirements of the approximation of EU legislation within the municipal waste sector have been estimated at EUR per capita for the EU accession countries.
If this is valid for Ukraine as well, the total capital cost requirements in Ukraine would amount to EUR billion. While it is very difficult to estimate the investment needs, it is clear that considerable financial resources will be required. It is, however equally clear that that improvements must be planned with due consideration given to the financial means and capabilities in Ukraine.
An appropriate approach would therefore likely involve incremental improvements, initially aiming at closing the worst dumpsites and improving the operational procedures at the best existing landfills. The Laws of Ukraine "On Environmental Protection" and "On Waste" constitute the cornerstones within the legal framework regarding municipal waste. They are, to a large extent, in line with the EU legislation. However, many of the provisions included in the two laws have not yet been put into force through the development and implementation of accompanying secondary legislation.
Furthermore, the environmental policy reform initiatives in Ukraine regarding waste mentioned in Section 2. Please note that most of the proposed legal measures mentioned in Section 3. Three further measures seem important with regard to an improvement of the legal framework regarding municipal waste. These concern the waste fees, contracts to be concluded between municipalities and private waste collection companies and powers and responsibilities of the various stakeholders.
Even though the polluters pay principle is fully recognised in Ukraine, waste producers do not pay enough to cover the full costs of municipal waste management systems and facilities, including investment costs. In some regions the waste fees levied are not even sufficient to cover the operation and maintenance costs.
Instead, the regional government budgets provide substantial subsidies. It is important to increase waste fees so that they may cover operation and maintenance costs and also investment costs associated with proper municipal waste management. Furthermore, it is important to improve the legal framework regarding the collection of waste fees in order to increase collection rates.
Private sector participation is important in order to improve waste management. It is, however, important to improve the legal framework regarding the contracts to be concluded between municipalities and, especially, private waste collection companies in order to ensure viable participation of private contractors in waste management. Contracts should be awarded through formal and transparent competitive tendering. They should have a duration, which makes it possible for the private contractors to recover their investments during the contract period.
An appropriate indexation mechanism should be developed. The contracts regarding collection service systems must in detail define: specifications of the types and quality and quantity of services required; modes for evaluating and measuring the performance; types of equipment to be used e. Powers and responsibilities of the various stakeholders within waste management, such as the MENR, municipalities, private waste collection companies and tax inspectorates, have to be clearly defined.
It seems appropriate to vest the major responsibility for waste management in the municipalities. The above targets can be postponed by a period of up to four years for Member States in which more than 80 per cent of collected municipal solid waste was landfilled in Furthermore, the following material specific recycling targets apply: glass: 60 per cent;. The environmental authorities and, especially, municipalities should do whatever possible to improve statistics on municipal waste.
This is most important. Furthermore, they should concentrate on the development and implementation of regional and local municipal waste management plans, possibility of launching certain joint implementation projects and also public awareness building. The municipal waste management plans to be developed and implemented with the participation of the various stakeholders should address the present problem with increasing volumes of municipal waste.
They should pay much attention to the gradual introduction of the so-called waste management hierarchy principle, which is recognised in the Law of Ukraine "On Waste". This principle, briefly speaking, implies that waste management must aim at preventing the generation of waste and reducing its harmfulness.
Only as a final resort waste should be disposed safely through landfilling or incineration. The possibility of upgrading existing landfills and dumpsites to international standards through joint implementation projects carried out in co-operation with foreign donors should be seriously explored by the MENR.
Such a project could, for instance, focus on the installation of reception facilities for methane. It may be carried out through well-targeted information campaigns, regular publication of statistics on municipal waste and public hearings in connection with the development of the municipal waste management plans. The most important problems related to energy are: High energy intensity. Heavy dependence on gas, coal and oil. In fact, Ukraine is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world.
By it was as much as 40 percent higher than in Data inaccuracies and the growth in the non-registered activities of the shadow economy may partly explain this increase, but only partly. There is no doubt that the energy intensity has increased substantially in the period. Consequently, energy related pollution, which does not respect any frontiers at all, constitutes a major problem. Dnipro and Mariupol were at the top of it and other 14 areas face serious ecological challenges.
Air pollution is at the top of the list of the ecological problems of Ukraine. However, the financial administration of implementing the solutions for the main modern ecological problems in the regions is not efficiently used. Both enterprises and population started using cheaper but more harmful solid fuel. All the companies that pollute the atmosphere with their industrial outputs are the contributors to the fund of the environmental tax.
The latter should outweigh any potential harm resulting from their activity. However, even that amount of money is not a panacea to solve ecological problems of Ukraine. There are several opinions about how to implement solutions that can protect the environment.