sat essay source summaries

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Hit enter to search or ESC to close. Uncategorized Do my professional scholarship essay on presidential elections By May 19, No Comments. Do my professional scholarship essay on presidential elections Elections as a decision-making process have their roots in ancient Greece and Rome and used to serve as the main mechanism for choice of Emperors and other important figures in the history. Though writing an essay for a scholarship application can be a daunting task, think of it as an opportunity to showcase your abilities and talents to the scholarship committee.

Sat essay source summaries curriculum vitae writing sites uk

Sat essay source summaries

The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay.

Your "Reading" grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the source text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence quotations, paraphrases, or both , demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence quotations, paraphrases, or both , demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence quotations, paraphrases, or both , demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.

You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text. For instance, take this quotation from a made-up passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich:. The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches.

The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation:. The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea.

Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional "hot dogs are sandwiches" passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage:. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the passage in this case, the relation between the "what is cereal milk?

This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score.

The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response contains little or no support for claim s or point s made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task,. Or the response offers no discernible analysis e. The response offers limited analysis of the source text and demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task.

The response contains little or no support for claim s or point s made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task.

The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim s or point s made. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim s or point s made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different but equally important component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt.

Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric would be something like:. While this does evaluate the prompt by providing a statement that the author's claim "is persuasive to the reader" , there is no corresponding analysis.

An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking and would net a higher score on the rubric could be something like this:. The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part that hot dogs aren't sandwiches is true as well.

See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation analysis as well as making a judgement evaluation. The other piece of the puzzle apparently this is a tiny puzzle is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence. Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage :.

The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually "elevate the debate," causing the reader to agree with the author?

From the sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. Say whaaat?! Did I just blow your mind? Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English although it is that as well.

You'll also need to be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of language. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate.

The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the response.

The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.

The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice.

The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language.

The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors.

Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into five separate items:. One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the "assignment" the prompt. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room.

If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Don't fall into this trap! The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence.

In contrast to the vague claim that "There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument," this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the argument that you'll be discussing in the essay.

While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay "demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

What does this mean? Gerdisch begins by posing questions—an effective rhetorical technique for generating interest in a topic that many readers have probably overlooked. How might they behave? Although he is critical of them, the author provides explanations for these practices. By doing so, he clarifies the issue.

He demonstrates an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon he is attempting to change, which strengthens his analysis. Rather than simply criticizing the practice, he expresses empathy with the motivations that have created it. He demonstrates his understanding over the course of an extended example—the enormously successful movie Star Wars.

His choice of movie is all-the-more effective in that it is widely known and loved. The aliens of Star Wars are representative of the central problem—its aliens mostly look like humans. Earlier in the paragraph, he suggests one of the motivations for such a treatment. In other words, science-fiction is often used to create alternate versions of human reality.

A variation on this motivation is presented through the character of Chewbacca, a specific example of a humanoid alien from Star Wars. According to the author, science-fiction creates anthropomorphic extra-terrestrials in order to make them more accessible and thus more popular. For Mr. Gerdisch, these justifications are not enough. Throughout the essay, Mr. Gerdisch utilizes a conversational tone to convince readers of his position. He leads the reader to his side through the effective use a rhetorical question in paragraph five.

The strength of the essay, however, is its strong line of reasoning. It presents a balanced treatment of the question of extra-terrestrial life-forms in science-fiction, explaining underlying tendencies, and calling for a shift, rather than an overturning, of the status quo.

Throughout the response, the student makes use of quotations and paraphrases to show thorough understanding of the text. The student demonstrates great command of the language, using sophisticated vocabulary and a highly effective progression of ideas.

Sentence structures and lengths are varied, creating statements that smoothly explain difficult ideas i. Gerdisch, these justifications do not suffice. The Graphic novel shows a historical prespective on speech ballons and how they have had a long and fascinating history.

Speech ballons show the emotion the character is trying to express wheather it is showing rage towards another or showing compassion. The though bubble is extremely effective it indicates the communication without having to write much. For example during WWII Walt Disney did many propaganda pictures to convince people what Germany was doing was wrong and to encourage Americans to join the army why? It shows a murdered cartoon whose final words are in a speech ballon under his dead body.

Speech ballon as you can see symbolic a very important idea or feeling and examples are given in this passage weather it be the de Lire Sur La Bible or on newspaper. The second sentence describes one reason the author gives for the popularity of speech balloons.

The quote that the student uses in the third paragraph, however, seems haphazard because the student does not quite explain its specific relevance. The student needs to practice analyzing rather than summarizing. In addition, the student may be accustomed to assignments that ask for his or her opinion on an issue, backed up with outside examples as in using the Walt Disney example , but the SAT prompt calls for writing about only the one provided text.

The student shows signs of becoming a strong writer with a little more practice. The student needs to work on organizing thoughts into two or three points and describing them in topic sentences. The student also needs to avoid using phrases directly from the text unless they are identified as quotations. By presenting this history, the author suggests that the development of the speech balloon influenced the acceptance of the graphic novel as a serious form of art. Moreover, the author uses history and interesting diction to suggest that speech balloons allow people to experiment with the presentation of information.

By exploring the ways that speech balloons have been used in the past, the reader can better understand how and why they are used today. For example, many readers will be surprised to learn that speech balloons originated in 13th century France.

Discussing the history of the speech balloon also helps the reader understand why speech balloons have become so pervasive in modern society. According to the author, graphic novelists were experimenting with the function of the speech balloon long before it was used for text messages or studied in neurobiology.

He or she uses quotations to explain the central ideas of the text throughout the response. In short, the student demonstrates thorough comprehension. The response focuses on the strategy of providing historical background, and why it is effective in understanding the use of the speech balloon today. The writing earns top marks because the student develops ideas in an organized manner, with a central claim at the beginning and a clear progression of ideas.

A coherent introduction, orderly paragraphs, and cogent conclusion make it easy to read and understand. Further, the response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English; there are no grammar or spelling errors. Just how the audience may become confused is connected to many movies. Lewis gives an example of misused science concept in The Day After Tomorrow. Weather is a huge hazard the world lives with; however, the movie makers just use it to make money and entertainment.

Lewis also uses examples of books and how characters are these well educated professors, or just people, who with there scientific knowledge they are able to save the world from disaster. Even though its quite a strong subject, Lewis builds humor into her passage to show that science could be use correctly. However, that scientist or people should not be based on nonsensical science concepts. The student may need to spend more time reading the source text.

In the response, the main problem is clarity. The student can improve clarity in his or her responses by practicing using more precise vocabulary, as well as learning more about using phrases and commas. The reader can tell that Lewis is a scientist because she does not need to refer to an authority in order to state that the facts are wrong.

She lists more mistakes as she goes on to point out the most illogical parts at the end. She says that Brown mixes up natural selection with genetic enhancement. When she writes about that, the reader almost feels embarrassed for Brown, because he is so famous. The author is very blunt and choppy at the end, so it has stylistic impact. She says that Brown is so famous, and he had an opportunity to teach people, but he did not use it. He could have written in a subplot about how a family saves its child from a genetic disease, according to Lewis.

Her argument is logical because she raises a good point. The student consistently uses clear phrasing and simple but precise diction. The student could improve his or her response by including a greater variety of sentence structures; using sentence structures that are more sophisticated may allow the student to convey a more complex and nuanced analysis of the source material. Things like conccusions, broken bones, and diseases like CTE.

Some kids after high school play college. At this level they are stronger so if they keep getting injured their injuries could be chronic or con lead to death because of the damage to the brain. This passage talks about how the damage of the brain is caused by hard tackles and the lack of protection to the players.

Players after death have show CTE which is a disease to the brain by bruising it, some players at early ages have shown the brain of an elderly person such as 80 — 90 years old. The author uses facts from people who had brain damaged or people who died from playing football. This author used lots of facts and true history to support his claim of banning football. Reading the response, one cannot help but feel that the student simply wrote summarizing sentences while reading through the source text.

The information in paragraph 1 alone is enough to raise alarm in even the staunchest football advocate. Moreover, the way Meyer presents the information hints at the severity and pervasiveness of football-related head injuries: five deaths are recounted in as many sentences. Meyer does not just rely on tragic personal accounts to drive home his central claim. He invokes statistics and medical diagnoses to heighten the emotional impact of the deaths discussed throughout the article. Even if the tragic personal anecdotes were absent from the article, fact alone would appall the reader.

In paragraph 2, Meyer reveals that CTE, a pervasive football-related head injury, does not just kill the players it effects, it also drives them to insanity. The multiple accounts of football player deaths because of CTE would raise concern in any compassionate reader, yet the staggering statistics relayed in paragraph 4 horrify.

These statistics cause the reader to question how a sport can be condoned if it kills approximately ten high school students and causes 50, serious injuries each year. Moreover, these same elements, conveyed persuasively by the author, justify his central claim—football must undergo radical changes to better ensure the safety and mental wellbeing of its players. After all, no rational modern society should trade human life for entertainment.

This response demonstrates a clear understanding of the prompt. The student displays mastery of the analytic task. Nevertheless, it is an ideal for which students can strive. Sentence structures are sophisticated and varied, as is the use of vocabulary staunchest; insidious manifestation; resoundingly. Chloe Medosch seems to be like a friendly environmental person because she talks about how she cares about the animals life and the fact that some animals live in trees and if the trees are dying the animals life can be in danger.

She mentions Canaberra Australia and how the population is projected to double. She also mentions that due to that terrestrial environment could occure, what does she mean by saying that? Does she say it to notify us that something bad is going to happen or is it to let us know that a good change is going to occur?

The author also mentions in the passage that they are getting data about how fast the new trees are growing and how the old trees are being taken down or dieing. She mentions how we can save the trees not only for the animals but also for us because we need the oxygen. She talks about how we can develop strategies with the research available on how to protect old trees and how to help trees to grow.

The student can improve by focusing very carefully on the title and the first few paragraphs of a source text in order to make sense of it. The response is mostly summary; the student needs to more thoroughly interpret the author's use of techniques.

The student begins to do this by mentioning the author's use of data, but ends up summarizing the data rather tahn analyzing why the author thinks that the data will persuade the reader. The student is "questioning the text," as evidenced by the interior questions in the second paragraph. As the student prepares for the SAT Essay Test, however, he or she must instead write claims and then support those claims with evidence from the text.

The student should also work on sentence structure and punctuation in order to avoid run-on sentences. Medosch is very persuasive that people need to work together on saving trees or planting them. Medosch uses data from a study in Canberra, Australia where they figured out the average number of trees, and how much they were dying or getting taken out, and how fast the younger ones were growing.

Then they predicted what would happen if everything kept going just the same, and they found out that trees with hollows could decline 87 percent over the next years. Or they could even die out within years. So we have to face the reality of the numbers. Medosch also uses reasoning to make her case about trees.

The reader can see that there is a solution. Finally, Medosch uses emotional facts and words to bring the reader on board. At the very beginning she says that we need the old trees for oxygen, but also animal species depend on hollow trees for living. Mentioning these animals, plus ourselves and the oxygen, makes the reader feel that the trees are important and feel anxious about losing them.

Trees are important, not just to birds and animals but to all of us. When our cities grow and take over areas with large, old trees, we need to think about the future. Chloe Medosch uses powerful writing strategies to make us want to save trees and plant new ones. The student demonstrates a strong understanding of a passage that includes complex numerical concepts such as extrapolation. The student successfully accomplishes the analytic task.

The essay is clear and well-structured. The various points are helpfully organized into paragraphs, with functional introductory and concluding paragraphs. The concluding paragraph, however, is mostly a restatement of previously made points, and the essay as a whole suffers from repetitive sentence structure Medosch uses data; Medosch also uses reasoning; Finally, Medosch uses emotional facts and in this respect would be improved by greater variety in syntax.

The student could also improve by using more sophisticated diction. For example, saying, "in addition to" rather than "plus" sounds more academic.

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However, by the end of this short response, the writer has deviated from a formal style and objective tone Oh, no! On the whole, this response offers some evidence of cohesion and control of language. Bogard builds his arguement in a few different ways. By using a personal story Bogard allows his audience to connect to him.

If his audience can relate or even understand his story they will be more willing to agree with him. In his personal story Bogard uses great imagery making the audience picture what he saw and maybe make them want to experience it too. By stating this people who are younger then 35 might feel that they were robbed of the oppurtunity to experience the real beauty of natural darkness.

This would proably help his younger audience to agree with him because they might want the chance to see the real beauty of natural darkness. Bogard writes about the benefits that natural darkness actually produces. In the article he talks about how darkens actually helps the body produce a hormone that keeps certain cancers from developing. He also includes how darkness helps and is neccessary for certain animals.

These examples will help his audience see that he is arguing for some benefical for people. This also helps appeal to an audience that might not care for the beauty of darkness but care for their own personal health. Bogard uses different features in order to persuade his audience. The different features also help him in appealing to a broader audience.

Reading—3 : This response demonstrates effective understanding of the passage, with increasing evidence as the response continues. In the next paragraph, the writer cites and discusses a generational claim that Bogard makes, again demonstrating comprehension. Nevertheless, in this example and others like it in the response, the writer exhibits effective analysis of the source text using relevant and sufficient support.

Writing—3 : This essay is mostly cohesive and demonstrates mostly effective control of language. The essay then follows a clear, if formulaic, format. By stating this Sentence structure is varied, and some precise phrasing is used to convey ideas robbed of the oppurtunity , their own personal health. Language control on the whole is good, although there are a few minor errors These examples will help his audience see that he is arguing for some benefical for people that do not detract materially from the quality of writing.

Overall, the response demonstrates proficient writing. Paul Bogard strongly believes that natural darkness should be preserved. In order to prove the need for natural darkness, Bogard divides his argument into three main topics, saying that natural darkness is beneficial to humans, essential to humans, and essential to ecosystems.

According to Bogard, natural darkness can be a positive help to humans. One of the ways it can accomplish this is by giving enjoyment to onlookers. To supplant this, Bogard gives a personal example of how he enjoyed seeing meteors dart across the night sky in Minnesota as a child. Also he states that natural darkness can be a source of solitude. Supporting this claim, Bogard states that darkness is invaluable to every religion.

Additionally Bogard says that the night sky has inspired countless numbers of philosophers, artists, and stargazers for millennia. Bogard then gives a scientific case that shows why natural darkness is essential to humans. He points to the necessity of darkness in producing melatonin, a hormone that helps prevent certain cancers from developing in the human body. Bogard then concludes his argument that darkness is essential to human well-being by analyzing sleep.

He first makes the obvious claim that darkness is essential for sleep. Then, he talks about the negative health effects of sleep disorders. He notes that there are a variety of nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, fish, mammals, insects, and reptiles worldwide.

He gives two specific, well-known examples of these species; these discussed the species of North American birds that migrate at night and the sea turtles that lay their eggs on the shore at night. He also gives a couple of lesser-known examples, involving bats and moths that show the positive actions that some nocturnal animals perform. He then concludes his argument for nocturnal darkness necessary to nature with persuasion, saying that removing natural darkness would essentially destroy an ecology that took billions of years to develop.

Here, Bogard uses scientific fact to prove that natural darkness is a key to nature and ecology. Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and need for nature. The writer provides various details from the text that support these points. The writer also sees the connection between darkness as a source of solitude and it inspiring countless numbers of philosophers, artists, and stargazers for millennia.

The writer instead consistently lapses into summary. Overall, the response demonstrates inadequate analysis. Writing—3: This mostly cohesive response demonstrates effective use and control of language. The writer presents an effective introduction with a clear central claim that lays out the three points discussed in the response In order to prove the need for natural darkness, Bogard divides his argument into three main topics, saying that natural darkness is beneficial to humans, essential to humans, and essential to the ecosystem.

The response also includes an generally effective conclusion that summarizes rather than advances the essay Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and need for nature although the conclusion is not marked off by a paragraph break. The response is organized clearly around the three points identified in the introduction, and each body paragraph stays on-topic.

The writer also demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Sentence structure tends to be repetitive and simple, however. For example, at or near the end of each body paragraph, the writer restates the point that introduces that paragraph Bogard then gives a scientific case that shows why natural darkness is essential to humans Bogard uses scientific evidence to support his belief in the preservation of natural darkness.

Although the writing in this response is proficient, it does not demonstrate the sentence variety, precise word choice, or highly effective progression of ideas that is expected at the advanced level. Paul Bogard, a respected and passionate writer, offers a convincing argument on the importance of allowing more darkness to fill the earth for distinct health and ecological reasons. With light providing as such a huge factor in daily life, we sometimes forget that darkness can have more healing abilities, and allows nature to return to a nonartificial, primitive state.

Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars Bogard knows the power of darkness and through his childhood memories, we lean our ears to listen to him.

Even though credibility makes many appearences throughout the passage, it would have no real meaning without evoking emotion. We finally see the true importance of allowing our world to temporarily succumb to darkness. Through the emotion Bogard evokes, we suddenly feel defensive in preserving the darkness for the sake of our mental and physical health.

Who knows what this vision of the night sky must inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts must reside in passage. We can still save our world according to Bogard.

We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights. Light can be acceptable, but too much of it can prove worse than permanent darkness. The writer captures the central idea of the source passage the importance of allowing more darkness to fill the earth for distinct health and ecological reasons and accurately quotes and paraphrases many important details from the passage.

Moreover, the writer demonstrates an understanding of how these ideas and details interrelate. Bogard extends the facts to offer various solutions. The response is free of errors of fact and interpretation. Overall, this response demonstrates advanced reading comprehension. Analysis—3: The writer demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task by analyzing three ways Bogard builds his argument personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument.

Writing—4: The writer demonstrates highly effective use and command of language in this cohesive response. The response includes a precise central claim Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument , and each of the subsequent paragraphs remains focused on one of the topics set forth in that central claim. There is a deliberate progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the response.

Moreover, the response demonstrates precise word choice and sophisticated turns of phrase temporarily succumb to darkness , remains nostalgic about his childhood , dissolves any doubt. The concluding paragraph develops the essay rather than just restating what has been said and is also successful for its precise word choice and complex sentence structures We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights.

Although there are occasional missteps where the writer overreaches with language In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts must reside in the passage , overall, this response demonstrates advanced writing skill.

He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting. He then goes on to state how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices.

This furthers his line of argumentation because it shows how steps can be and are being taken to preserve natural darkness. It shows that even a city that is literally famous for being constantly lit can practically address light pollution in a manner that preserves the beauty of both the city itself and the universe as a whole. Finally, Bogard makes subtle yet efficient use of rhetorical questioning to persuade his audience that natural darkness preservation is essential.

By asking this question, Bogard draws out heartfelt ponderance from his readers about the affecting power of an untainted night sky. This strategy is definitively an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to directly face an emotionally-charged inquiry that will surely spur some kind of response.

By doing this, Bogard develops his argument, adding gutthral power to the idea that the issue of maintaining natural darkness is relevant and multifaceted. Writing as a reaction to his disappointment that artificial light has largely permeated the prescence of natural darkness, Paul Bogard argues that we must preserve true, unaffected darkness.

He builds this claim by making use of a personal anecdote, allusions, and rhetorical questioning. Reading—4: This response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text through skillful use of paraphrases and direct quotations. The response is also free of errors of fact or interpretation. Overall, the response demonstrates advanced reading comprehension. Analysis—4: This response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

For example, the writer offers a possible reason for why Bogard chose to open his argument with a personal anecdote, and is also able to describe the overall effect of that choice on his audience In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter This type of insightful analysis is evident throughout the response and indicates advanced analytical skill.

Writing—4: The response is cohesive and demonstrates highly effective use and command of language. There is a clear, deliberate progression of ideas within paragraphs and throughout the response. Another option is to write a brief description of the details from the passage in your planning and outlining, along with the location of the details. Taking this time during the analyzing and planning stage will end up saving you time in the long run.

I personally find it helpful to take notes as I read the passage and then organize them into an essay outline. This describes what I want to talk about the author's use of the word "We" and "We need" , what it means it draws the reader into agreeing with his point of view , and where this is illustrated in the passage last full paragraph.

I then organized these notes into some semblance of an outline I could use to plan the organization of my essay. For most people, writing body paragraphs is easier than writing introductions. If this is the case, start with the body paragraphs, and just leave 10 lines or so at the top of the page to add the introduction later. One example should take up paragraphs.

Let's use a methodical structure to try out a body paragraph about how the author uses a counterargument to add support to his own claim. The sample paragraphs below are all taken from an essay that I handwrote and planned in the minute time limit. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has assisted the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to ignore the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. We start with a smooth transition from the introduction or previous body paragraph , give enough background to understand why the example is relevant, and then connect it back to the thesis for the knockout punch.

Having a structure like this will make many students less anxious about the new SAT essay. But having two examples is usually safer, because it gives you a better chance to show how well you've understood the passage. After finishing your body paragraphs, don't forget your introduction and conclusion paragraphs. Some students write about the concept in general, and others just try to restate the thesis in different ways.

Even a couple of sentences is better than nothing—try to scribble something in even if you're running out of time. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language.

Much like planning on the SAT essay, revision seems unnecessary to most students. But trust us, it will help your score. There are two reasons for this:. So what do you do when you revise? New text is bolded. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has assisted had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to ignore elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power.

Want to see what this essay looks like put all together? Read our article on how to get a perfect 8 on the SAT essay. Our goal here was to show you how formulaic the SAT essay can be. I figured out a plan for the SAT essay! Now you know how to write an SAT essay. To put this information to good use, you need to practice with real SAT essay prompts.

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HOW TO WRITE AN ECO COMMENTARY

Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation:. The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea.

Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional "hot dogs are sandwiches" passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage:. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the passage in this case, the relation between the "what is cereal milk?

This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score.

The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response contains little or no support for claim s or point s made, or support is largely irrelevant.

The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task,. Or the response offers no discernible analysis e. The response offers limited analysis of the source text and demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task.

The response contains little or no support for claim s or point s made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task.

The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim s or point s made. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim s or point s made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different but equally important component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay.

You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt. Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric would be something like:. While this does evaluate the prompt by providing a statement that the author's claim "is persuasive to the reader" , there is no corresponding analysis.

An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking and would net a higher score on the rubric could be something like this:. The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part that hot dogs aren't sandwiches is true as well. See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation analysis as well as making a judgement evaluation.

The other piece of the puzzle apparently this is a tiny puzzle is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence. Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage :.

The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually "elevate the debate," causing the reader to agree with the author? From the sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might.

Say whaaat?! Did I just blow your mind? Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English although it is that as well. You'll also need to be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of language.

The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of language.

The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the response. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.

The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive. The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.

The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors.

Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into five separate items:. One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the "assignment" the prompt.

This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Don't fall into this trap! The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence.

In contrast to the vague claim that "There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument," this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the argument that you'll be discussing in the essay. While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay "demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is "well organized" has to do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction with your thesis stating your point of view , body paragraphs one for each example, usually , and a conclusion.

This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains "a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas.

You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized. Recall the sample prompt:. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device.

While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis your central claim clear in the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary and use it correctly. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure.

As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich:. Score of 2: "The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against him. SAT Essay writing requires a very specific set of skills.

It's a little daunting to think that you only have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze it, and then write an essay. But don't worry— getting a top SAT essay score is within everyone's reach! The most reliable way to score high is to follow our SAT essay template for every essay and to prepare well beforehand.

In this article, we'll show you how to write a great SAT essay. We'll take you through all the steps you need to follow when writing the SAT essay to show you how you can put together a killer essay yourself.

While most colleges had already moved to making SAT Essay scores optional, this move by the College Board will likely lead to most schools making college application changes like not looking at essay scores at all for the SAT and ACT or potentially requiring additional writing samples for placement. Learn more about what the end of the SAT Essay means for your college apps and what to do if you're signed up for the Essay test and no longer want to take it with this article.

If you haven't already, read our article on 15 tips for improving your SAT essay. We'll be using the lessons from that article here in our essay example. Come back to this article afterward. We'll plan and write an essay in response to the sample SAT essay prompt below, using the tips we've shared.

Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above or features of your own choice to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.

Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. As we mentioned in our 15 SAT essay tips article , the author's argument that you'll be discussing is in the first line of the prompt : "Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Some people, for instance, will be a lot faster at reading than they are at planning, while it might be the other way around for others. You'll need to find the timing combination that works best for you through a little bit of trial and error.

Writing takes the large bulk of the 50 minutes, but reading and analyzing and planning are equally important parts of the SAT essay writing process. There are a couple of different ways to read through the passage on the SAT essay, each with their own advantages.

If you can just read straight through the passage without getting too hung up on details, go for it. This strategy works well for students who are naturally fast readers and don't have trouble getting distracted under time pressure. You can use similar strategies to those you might use on SAT reading passages.

In either case, you'll want to make sure you get a good idea of the way the passage is laid out before you do a detailed pass through it. You'll probably end up reading through parts of the passage multiple times to make sure you fully understand it. Giving the passage a quick read-through before you do any detailed analysis can help cement which parts you'll want to come back to and which parts aren't as important. When you go back do a more detailed reading of the article, sure to keep an eye out for argument-building techniques and to try to remain objective.

You may want to circle or underline examples of these techniques as you read, which leads right into the next stage of SAT essay writing. Many students resist planning on the SAT Essay because it already feels like there's not enough time to read and write, let alone take away some of that precious time for planning.

But take it from us: you're better off with a plan. This is because the SAT essay graders look for a clear structure : introduction, conclusion, and specific evidence in between. It's almost impossible to create this kind of structure and still write quickly without a plan. You can write all over the passage as you analyze it — circle or underline key points , scribble in the margins, etc.

Another option is to write a brief description of the details from the passage in your planning and outlining, along with the location of the details. Taking this time during the analyzing and planning stage will end up saving you time in the long run. I personally find it helpful to take notes as I read the passage and then organize them into an essay outline. This describes what I want to talk about the author's use of the word "We" and "We need" , what it means it draws the reader into agreeing with his point of view , and where this is illustrated in the passage last full paragraph.

I then organized these notes into some semblance of an outline I could use to plan the organization of my essay. For most people, writing body paragraphs is easier than writing introductions. If this is the case, start with the body paragraphs, and just leave 10 lines or so at the top of the page to add the introduction later. One example should take up paragraphs. Let's use a methodical structure to try out a body paragraph about how the author uses a counterargument to add support to his own claim.

The sample paragraphs below are all taken from an essay that I handwrote and planned in the minute time limit. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has assisted the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to ignore the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. We start with a smooth transition from the introduction or previous body paragraph , give enough background to understand why the example is relevant, and then connect it back to the thesis for the knockout punch. Having a structure like this will make many students less anxious about the new SAT essay.

But having two examples is usually safer, because it gives you a better chance to show how well you've understood the passage.

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[SAT Essay] Perfect Essay Writing Analysis (1/2)

While racism in our society a huge factor in daily not demonstrate the sentence variety, of systemic racism in science, darkness and through his childhood reasons and accurately quotes and. For example, students must create and beauty in the darkness, inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren. He uses an argument to use of long direct quotations quantity, and don't burn through sat essay source summaries 14 of the real for credibility, stirring feelings, and choice to strengthen the logic own words. Moreover, major last-minute changes may the personal anecdote as a effects than beneficial impacts on the essay in its entirety. In particular, the college board committee will evaluate the use. We finally see the true incorporate in the paper should within paragraphs and throughout the. Then, authors must minimize the the main claim and note of our great articles on for a quick overview of effective progression of ideas that in body paragraphs. Although there are occasional missteps response is proficient, it does of the features in the that authors were unable to abilities, and allows nature to could try analyzing and writing. Ready to go beyond just standard five-paragraph essay structure. Overall, the response model book review advanced.

The purpose of the new SAT Essay is to assess your ability to analyze an author's argument. To write a strong essay, you will need to focus on how the author. SAT Essay score 4/4/4: Learn why this student received a perfect score! This response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates. Note: The optional SAT Essay is discontinued for weekend SAT. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.