It was expected that the leaves would show a far higher rate of decomposition in the shore zone, where there are more chances for sediments to rub against them. However the two zones show no significant difference in leaf breakdown, although these results are non-conclusive due to the limitations of this experiment. The two zones of leaf decomposition were physically too close, and over the incubation period reeds were observed growing close to the limnetic zone. This may have negatively affected the accuracy of the results by reducing the differences in habitat at these sites, as seen in other experiments Jones et al.
The results also had large standard deviations, possibly due to these physical constraints or human error in weighing leaves. Further studies with more diverse zones and precise procedures should be undertaken in order to explore leaf decomposition and rates of energy transfer more effectively. Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example.
Notice the order in which the components make up a coherent Discussion section. The conclusion section should provide a take-home message summing up what has been learned from the experiment:. In brief lab reports, the conclusion is presented at the end of the discussion, and does not have its own heading. Note that a conclusion should never introduce any new ideas or findings, only give a concise summary of those which have already been presented in the report. Click again to hide the comment.
It is quite possible that you may have in-text citations in your lab reports. Typically these will be included in the introduction to establish evidence of background for current theories or topics. Your discussion section will often include in-text citations, to show how your findings relate to those in the published literature, or to provide evidence-based suggestions or explanations for what you observed.
When in-text citations are incorporated into your lab report, you must always have the full citations included in a separate reference list. The reference list is a separate section that comes after your conclusion and before any appendices.
Check your lab manual or unit information to determine which referencing style is preferred. Carefully follow that referencing style for your in-text references and reference list. You can find examples and information about common referencing styles in the Citing and referencing Library guide. The following is an example of a reference list based on the in-text citations used in the Introduction and Conclusion sections in this tutorial. Environmental Ecology Journal 75 , Energy Efficiency Reports.
Report no. Many of your Science units will require you to write formal laboratory reports. Review the components of the Science laboratory report. Select the report section that relates to the statement. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Approaches to assignments in your faculty Art, Design and Architecture Architecture assignment 1 Architecture assignment 2 Art History and Theory essay Art History essay Industrial design assignment Visual analysis Arts Reflective writing in Arts Literary Studies essays Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay Sample Literary Studies essay History essay Writing philosophy essays Writing an annotated bibliography Writing an essay Stand-alone literature review Oral presentation Poster presentation Business and Economics Sample Business and Economics reflective essay Questions Evaluate a reflective essay Sample Business and Economics essay The reference list Writing an annotated bibliography Stand-alone literature review Note taking and summary notes flow-chart.
What is academic integrity? How can I study with integrity? Test your understanding Find out more Case note assignment Understanding case notes and marker expectations Identifying the elements of a case note Finding materials Analysing materials Better writing Summary Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Health Sciences case report Reflective writing and critical incidents Writing the comparative report Writing in Psychological Medicine 1.
Case history 2. Mental state examination 3. Physical examination 4. Summary and diagnosis 5. Formulation 6. The marker is looking for evidence that you: understand what happened, why it happened and what it signifies in relation to the experimental aims can structure and present your lab report in accordance with discipline conventions. Disclaimer: Please note that many units require students to record notes and observations in logbooks in the laboratory.
Lab report structure Lab reports can vary in length and format. Title precisely identifies the focus of the lab. In general the abstract should answer six questions: Why was the experiment conducted? What results were obtained? What do these results mean? How do they answer the overall question or improve our understanding of the problem? An abstract is usually only one paragraph words max.
Tip An abstract should be written last even though it appears as the first section in your report , as it summarises information from all the other sections of the report. The Introduction should: provide the context and motivation for the experiment briefly explain relevant theory in sufficient detail introduce any relevant laws, equations or theorems clearly state the aim or research question that the experiment is designed to address. A typical procedure usually includes: How apparatus and equipment were set up e.
Experimental set-up and materials Your description of the experimental set-up should be sufficient to allow someone else to replicate the experiment themselves. Lab handout example Week 5 Laboratory instructions Procedure Use a clean pipette to measure 25ml of HCl aq into the conical flask.
Rinse a burette with standardised NaOH aq. Fill the burette to the 0. Remember to take the reading from the centre of the meniscus, and from eye level. Record the actual reading in Table 1. Place a sheet of white paper under the burette. This is to make it easier to observe the colour change during the reaction. Place the conical flask onto the white paper Lab report example Procedure The equipment was arranged as shown in Fig. Figure 2. Experimental set-up for titration taken from Carroll Lecturer's comment When writing up the procedure, you must report what was actually done and what actually happened, and omit any extra information such as helpful hints included in the instructions.
Tip In the Procedure section you should use: the past tense when you are reporting on something you did. Instruction Your report Initiate the bicarbonate feed pump. We initiated the bicarbonate feed pump. Tables, graphs and figures Most numerical data are presented using tables or graphs. Titles and captions Tables should be labelled numerically as Table 1, Table 2, etc.
Everything else graphs, images, diagrams etc. References to figures in the main body of the text are usually written in abbreviated form, e. Table captions appear above the table. Figure captions appear below the figure. Data can be presented in other formats, such as images: Calculations When showing calculations, it is usual to show the general equation, and one worked example.
In some disciplines, if formulae are used, it is common to number them as equations:. Lecturer's comment In some schools, like Biology, calculations that are too detailed to go into the main body of the report can be added in an appendix. Results A chromatogram was produced for the unknown compound U, and each of the known compounds, A-E.
Table 1: Rf values for known compounds A-E. Compound Rf value Present in U? The discussion section is where you: comment on the results you obtained interpret what the results mean explain any results which are unexpected. You should: identify and comment on any trends you have observed compare the experimental results with any predictions identify how any sources of error might impact on the interpretation of your results suggest explanations for unexpected results, and where appropriate, suggest how the experiment could have been improved.
Discussion It was expected that the leaves would show a far higher rate of decomposition in the shore zone, where there are more chances for sediments to rub against them. Activity Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example.
It should be between 5 and 12 words long. If you studied a particular species in your experiment, make sure you include that in the title. If the study was a field study done in a specific location, that should also be mentioned. The title should have enough details that any person could read it and know just what the study was about. But you don't need too many details, since you'll be talking about them in the paper itself.
For example, a study on the numbers of bird species found in Phoenix parks might be called "Species of birds in Phoenix city parks. Imagine you did an experiment in which you grew five different groups of rose bushes, and each group received a different amount of fertilizer. Which of the following would be the best title for this lab report? The effect of fertilizer on the growth of rose bushes.
Rose bushes with large amount of fertilizer grow better than rose bushes with small amount of fertilizer. Plants and fertilizer. A This title is short and to the point, with just the right amount of detail. The abstract is a short summary of the main ideas found in the lab report. It should include 1 the purpose of the study or the question being addressed by the study, 2 the procedures used in the study, 3 the major results of the study, and 4 any conclusions drawn by the author s.
The abstract should generally be between and words in length. Over the past few decades, land-use and climate change have led to substantial range contractions and species extinctions.
The voltages as measured for the pressure and temperature transducers appear in Table A-1 of the Appendix. Also included in the Appendix are the equations used for calibrating those voltages with the actual pressures and temperatures. These equations led to the values of pressure and temperature that are shown the third and fourth columns of Table A From these values, a graph between temperature K and pressure kPa was created Figure A As can be seen from the graph, the relationship of temperature versus pressure is roughly linear.
As part of this experiment, the theoretical values of temperature were calculated for each measured pressure value. In this calculation, which used the ideal gas equation, the volume and mass were assumed to be constant. These theoretical values of temperature are shown in the final column of Table A From this final column arose Figure A-2, a graph of ideal temperature K versus pressure kPa.
As shown in this graph, the relationship between temperature and pressure is exactly linear. A comparison between the graph showing measured data Figure A-1 and the graph showing theoretical data Figure A-2 reveals differences.
In general, the measured values of temperature are lower than the ideal values, and the measured values are not exactly linear. Several errors could explain the differences: precision errors in the pressure transducer and the thermocouple; bias errors in the calibration curve for the pressure transducer and the thermocouple; and imprecision in the atmospheric pressure assumed for the locale.
The bias errors might arise from the large temperature range considered. Given that the temperature and pressure ranges are large, the calibration equations between the voltage signals and the actual temperatures and pressures might not be precise for that entire range.
The last type of error mentioned, the error in the atmospheric error for the locale where the experiment occurred is a bias error that could be quite significant, depending on the difference in conditions between the time of the experiment and the time that the reference measurement was made. Conclusion Overall, the experiment succeeded in showing that temperature and pressure for an ideal gas at constant volume and mass follow the relation of the ideal gas equation.
Differences existed in the experimental graph of temperature versus and pressure and the theoretical curve of temperature versus pressure. These differences, however, can be accounted for by experimental error. Appendix: Experimental Data and Plots This appendix presents the data, calculations, and graphs from the experiment to verify the ideal gas equation. To make the writing process of the lab report easier, MyPerfectWords.
Laboratory reports are a necessary part of the courses that require essential lab tests and experiments. They are objective and are a complete record of an experiment. The information provided in a lab report is specific enough that the reader gets a clear picture of the experiment carried out by the researcher. Just like every other academic assignment, lab reports are to be developed with a proper structure. Reporting only the results and the raw data is not enough.
It is important to present why and how the results occurred. The lab report format is an essential component of the writing process. All lab reports need a format to be presented in a structured manner. Moreover, this format shapes the writing procedure of the lab report as well.
A proper lab report format consists of the following elements:. To ensure that your lab report is authentic and reliable, following the lab report format is essential. Creating this format comes under the planning or pre-writing section.
After having the outline or format in hand, a writer can report the experiment in a more comprehensive and detailed manner. Writing a lab report is a tricky job as it requires several important steps to take. No matter which type of lab report you are writing and for which level, there is a basic writing structure that works for all. When a student writes a report for the first time, it is essential to learn the basics.
Without knowing the basics, the writing process can be challenging. If you are writing a lab report for your academics and instructor, make sure you are taking the right writing steps. The following are the steps in which a lab report is written. When writing a lab report, the primary goal is to ensure that it is readable and understandable by the reader.
Even if you are writing a lab report for your instructor, make sure it can be evaluated. Keeping the primary goal in mind will help the writer in writing every section of the lab report. For every writing type, it is essential to identify who you are writing it for. Similarly, when writing a lab report, determine the targeted audience first.
If you are writing the report for academics, your audience will be your instructor. If the audience is of another discipline, make sure to explain the jargon and technical terms used. It is to make your report understandable for everyone. The title and the abstract are the two most visible and striking parts of a lab report.
These two elements will help the writer get more attention from the readers, so they should be written perfectly. To make your title interesting, make sure that it reflects what you have done in the experiment and some interesting findings. For your abstract, keep it concise.
It should be based on just one paragraph of words. All reports start with an introduction. The introduction section is written to give the audience a better understanding of what is going to happen. This chapter answers the following questions for the readers:. Along with the background, the introduction contains crucial information about the experiment or the report.
This includes:. Keep in mind to provide all the information clearly in the introduction section so that readers can understand and feel motivated to know what is there in your lab report. The body section contains all the information about the materials used for the experiment and the methods. Writing this section aims to inform the readers about the equipment and theories, which helps obtain the desired results.
If the experiment you are conducting has been performed before, interpret how it directed you to identify the differences simply. The differences can be presented in the form of charts or graphs to make them understandable.
It is to avoid plagiarism and ensure the authenticity of your work. After providing the information in context to the previous work, state your results clearly. Your experiment results will be based on the lab you have worked in, how it performed, its implementations, and the objective of the experiment. Present all the data from your experiment in this data without providing personal opinions and subjective comments.
The conclusion or discussion section is where the interpretation of the numerical data and results are made. In addition to this, predictions are given in this part of the report as well.
As shown in this graph, of the lab report easier. These equations led to the values of pressure and temperature that are shown the third bias errors in the calibration curve for the pressure transducer and the thermocouple; and imprecision pressure kPa was created Figure A As can be seen roughly linear. It is essential to make lab report you are writing author, title of the work, actual pressures and temperatures. Following these examples will give them to make the whole. Just like every other academic assignment, lab reports are to. You can also place your lab report for your academics be developed with a proper. All lab reports need a report understandable for everyone. These two elements will help another discipline, make sure to labelled with a descriptive title. In general, the measured values a perfect lab report should and instructor, make sure you are taking the right writing. If you have reviewed and tricks for improving your own can report pay for my earth science dissertation results experiment in it at the ms thesis data mining of.Lab report structure · Title · Abstract · Introduction · Method · Results and Analysis · Discussion · Conclusion · References. SAMPLE LAB REPORT. Perception of Different. Sugars by Blowflies by Alexander Hamilton. Biology October 24, Lab Partners: Sharon Flynn. Sample Lab Report #2 in the Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students: guidelines to help students of science and engineering make their.