One of the most basic confusions for our students about commentary is the fact that different teachers call it different things. For example, I call it commentary while another teacher may call it analysis and still other teachers may refer to it as explanation or elaboration.
In brief, the commentary part of the essay is the part where the writer explains how the evidence proves the thesis. It is the part of the essay in which the writer comments upon the evidence and points out what the evidence shows. Students need ample practice with this writing skill so that they avoid writing obvious summaries in place of analysis.
But crafting commentary begins with clarifying terminology first and foremost. This is one of the very first lessons I have my students do with sample essays before they even begin the writing process. Color-coding, or ratiocination, is the process of highlighting different parts of the essay according to a key. For example, students might highlight the thesis statement and topic sentences in yellow, the textual evidence in blue, and the commentary in green.
By color coding the essay, they can begin to draw connections throughout the essay. The same goes for highlighting textual evidence. There should be twice as much commentary in an essay as evidence. This guide will take your students through the color-coding process and help them begin to draw connections to how the different parts of the essay interact with each other. Be beginning with these words, students are forced to explain what the quotation shows rather than what it says.
These are two different concepts. Since they introduce this concept before we meet any other characters, it creates dramatic irony that rouses suspicion of every character. However, the point here is that students cannot stop at the paraphrase level. They must go beyond this literal level to the abstract level of analysis.
So, how do we get students to go beyond the obvious? How do we teach them to analyze evidence? You can find more information about this method as well as an entire commentary bundle by Bespoke ELA by clicking here. It is! The essence of this method is to have students first identify the literary elements and techniques within a quotation and then explain how those elements or techniques prove the topic sentence and thereby the thesis statement.
To clarify, literary elements are the fundamental elements that are found in every story or piece of literature. These include: setting, point of view, style, conflict, character, and plot. Literary techniques delve more into the element of style with figurative language, and these techniques are not found in every piece of literature.
Techniques include metaphor, simile, irony, personification, diction, allusion, apostrophe, and others. Thesis Statement : George Eliot uses imagery and allusions to show that beauty comes in all forms and is something to be captured through art. Devices Included in this Quotation : imagery, allusion, alliteration, analogy. Your audience or readers may not be able to interpret the facts or examples that are provided in the source material. In other words, your commentary shows how your source material relates to, explains, or proves your point s.
Ultimately, signaling from source material helps you not only to avoid plagiarism but also to make your writing flow smoothly. You can signal that you are beginning your commentary with a parenthetical citation or a transition to your commentary. Let's talk about each strategy. Signaling your commentary can be easy with directly quoted material.
Petrarch embarks on a physical journal hoping to gain spiritual insight. Ultimately, Petrarch is as lost in the temporal circuitous route as he is in the eternal route to God because he seeks to bring God closer through the climbing of a mountain, not through internal reflection.
By the end of his journey, his final impression is that he must seek God through internal reflection, not physical action. The quotation marks that must go around directly quoted material indicate to the reader the source material used here is exactly as it is written in the source. The page number included in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence indicates that the previous material came directly from the text on page Although parenthetical citations do signal to the reader that the cited material is over, oftentimes you will want to make a transition to your commentary.
While sometimes it may be most effective to quote material directly, many times you will want to paraphrase or summarize material. It can be more difficult to signal paraphrased or summarized material. So, it is even more important to signal that your commentary is beginning since the reader will not have the quotation marks to signal that the source material is ending. Women may feel uneasy upon receiving ordinarily positive comments on their appearance from male coworkers or supervisors.
To these women, the remarks carry an implied meaning: instead of being thought of as productive employees, they are actually being viewed as just a pretty part of the atmosphere. Depending on the situation, words or expressions which appear favorable may actually be unsuitable in a conversation Locker, Business and administrative communication 6th ed.
Exactly where does the cited information begin and end? As you can see, it is not entirely clear what information is taken from the source and what ideas belong to the writer. In the case above, all of the information had been taken from Locker. Whether you choose to paraphrase, summarize, or directly quote material, you will want to signal to your reader that you are moving from the paraphrased, summarized, or quoted material into your commentary about that material.
You can use transitional words or phrases or complete sentences to signal to your commentary of source material. Transitional words and phrases help make a smooth movement from source material to your own words. Many transitional words and phrases are available to you. Which word or phrase you choose to use will depend upon what kind of commentary you need to provide. Among the most important problems preventing correct pronunciation of the English language is that of interference.
Politzer and Politzer indicate that interference is when an individual has an acquired sound system in his or her native language, and that sound system interferes with second language acquisition. He then goes on to discuss an example of interference.
He spends his days watching the happenings of the Greenwich Village courtyard, which enables Jeff to peer into the apartments and lives of local residents. The act of observing events from a secure distance is as tempting as reality television and magazines. To this day, these mediums provide entertainment tailored to popular culture.
So, if Rear Window teaches us that voyeurism is a dangerous yet natural desire , does the film comment on the individuals who consent to being watched? Rear Window is a commentary on social values and provokes its audience to examine habits of their own, especially in a world where sensitive information is at our fingertips. The stereotypical nature of these labels, based on superficial traits that Jeff observes from his window, exemplifies the sexism prevalent in the s.
The historical background of stereotypes is imbedded within Rear Window and shares vast similarities with the stereotypes we recognise today. Additionally, Hitchcock delves into the flip side of this matter, presenting the theory that those he watches are just as guilty of allowing his intrusion into their private lives. Contrary to this perception, its ingrained messages are fundamentally true to this day.
Essays in English Language require contemporary examples of language being used in Australia , in order to justify your response to the topic. English Language essays are often said to only be as good as the examples that are used, so it follows that your essays will only be as good and interesting as the examples that you find.
Great examples not only lead your discussion, but also make your essay more interesting and therefore stand out. Primarily you want your evidence to comprise examples of how language is being used within a specific context in contemporary Australia. You may not always be able to find a specific instance of a particular language feature being used, which can be especially true for language that is not frequently used in public contexts, such as slang and ethnolects.
It is okay to just have general examples that you discuss in these instances; perhaps the ellipsis omission of understood words of auxiliary verbs in varieties such as Greek Australian English. Such quotes can be used in essays, but should complement your own discussion of your own examples. Good examples must also be 'contemporary', as per the majority of essay prompts. As a general rule of thumb, ask yourself if the example you have is older than two years , and if so you may want to think of something newer.
This does not mean you can never employ an older example. For instance, you may want to discuss language change in an essay, which sometimes necessitates discussing the historical context of certain language features. Many students find it highly beneficial to create a table or list of examples that they will practice and get comfortable with — you cannot bring this into the exam of course, but it is a very effective tool for preparation.
In your table or list, consider including the following:. These examples do not necessarily have to be something that you put a huge effort into going out and finding, so long as you make sure that you write down interesting language features that you come across in your day-to-day life. Keep an eye on places like the news, social media including emojis and text speak , and any Australian television, radio, podcasts you watch or listen to.
You will of course also discuss different examples of contemporary language use in class too, so make sure to add them as well. Getting evidence is only step one of preparing for essay writing in English Language, but is the most important step for writing interesting and engaging essays. Often, students will be able to identify lots of techniques and as such, lots of elements to analyse, but they struggle to choose between these techniques when it comes to writing their responses.
Take a second to read through the section. Want to know more? I hope this has been helpful in showing how to analyse a speech as a Language Analysis prompt. How many times have you told yourself, "I'm going to start doing this, "once I graduate from high school. We've all been there, because our priority in year 12 is doing assessments and exams.
We have this romanticized version of what reality will look like after high school. All those things that you had put off, all those things that you'd promise yourself that you would do, the time has come. Whether that be catching up with long lost friends, whether that be joining the gym and getting fit again, or starting to read books again, especially for pleasure now that you don't have to read for school.
Except boo, I won't get to read Lisa's amazing blog's and study guides. I'll start picking up my hobby of dancing again, I'll start doing this, I'll start doing that, but then usually, this happens. Once I marathon "Terrace House", then I'll look at gym memberships. The main message I want you to take away is, you're always going to find excuses for the things that you really want to do.
It took me an additional six years until I started reading again after high school. As soon as I started uni, I started making up excuses, "Ah, I've got uni, I'm busy making friends, "I'm busy going to uni parties. Same thing with dancing, I stopped dancing before I went into VCE, before my final years of high school, so that I could focus on my exams, but I wanted to get back into it. But it took me another three years until I got back into that.
So my question to you is, how long is it going to take you before you commit to doing that thing that you really want to do, and becoming the person that you want to be? This is something that we have to battle with throughout our entire lives. It's the same case for me with this particular YouTube channel. It's taken me almost two years to figure out what I want to do with this channel, how to break away from just English, so I can focus on more millennial based topics, like this video, offering advice about the things that I've learned throughout my 20's and impart them onto you.
So if you're in year 12, I'd absolutely love it if you stuck around to watch the next few videos that will be coming out. I'll be basing topics on things like university experiences, how to land your first job outside of high school, what else, productivity hacks, and all the things that will help prepare you for the world that's out there, and be the best version of yourself. Congratulations to you because you're nearing the end of the year and you're so close to sitting your exams.
I hope that everything that I've done this year has been able to help you, and nourish you, and nurture you to become a better student who is ready to kick some ass. The General Achievement Test GAT is a 3 hour assessment based on your general knowledge ranging from English, mathematics and humanity topics. Have you ever talked to your friend from another school and realised how unfair it was that their SAC length for the same assessment was twice the amount of time you had for your SAC?
Well, this type of this discrepancy can be compensated by the GAT as it helps to eliminate any biases from school to school. This means that ultimately, when SAC marks contribute to your overall study score, you can be sure that your grades have been fairly compared to all other VCE students across the state.
All end-of-year papers are checked twice by two different assessors who independently give you a score for your exam. Now if they both give you a similar score then great, your exam has been marked. If not, a third assessor will then look at your exam in order to reach an agreement.
Then, there is a last check against your GAT mark. If it so happens that your exam mark is much lower than what your GAT mark anticipated you to obtain — in other words, if you received a high GAT mark which demonstrates your strong skills in English, mathematics, science or humanities depending on the subject in question, then the paper will be reassessed again.
So, if you do well in the GAT and receive an excellent score and for some reason you under-perform in the exam, then the GAT mark can help lift up your score. Thus, the GAT mark will only ever help you, it can never bring your mark down. Some students apply for a DES when they experience hardship during their VCE exam period such as personal trauma or an accident.
In such situations, the GAT is compared with their exam mark to see whether or not the student demonstrated their full potential or if they under-performed because of their current situation. Many students believe that they are immune to anything happening to them before or during the exams, but you never know. Now knowing all this, it is often said that there is no preparation required for the GAT.
Of course, if you are the type who would like to fit in some practice before the real thing, then have a look at the GAT archive available on the VCAA website. This post will break down both the writing components and offer you handy tips on how you should approach these tasks in order to maximise your GAT score and potentially increase your overall ATAR.
VCAA suggests 30 minutes for both Writing Tasks 1 and 2 leaving the remainder of your time for 70 multiple choice questions. If you are happy with this approach then by all means go for it. However, considering that English is definitely in your top 4 subjects that contribute significantly to your ATAR, it is worth investing more of your time on the Writing Tasks.
Generally, most students spend around 1 minute per multiple choice question which should therefore, only take around 70 minutes to complete the MCQ section. If we bear in mind that some MCQs will be more complex than others, say we dedicate an extra 20 minutes for MCQ, meaning that you should complete the whole MCQ section in around the 90 minutes mark. Strategically, this is a good approach for any student studying an English subject — which is well, everyone.
Over the past few years, content that has popped up in the GAT includes Mt. Everest, wolves, the ocean and more. Below is an image of what you should expect:. Develop a piece of writing presenting the main information in the material. You should not present an argument. Your piece will be judged on:. To write a creative piece utilising the information available in Writing Task 1. The worst thing to do, which unfortunately a lot of students fall into the trap of doing, is to simply write a long-winded essay literally regurgitating the information from the GAT sheet.
This will be an excellent way of executing your writing piece. Writing Task 2 consists of four statements on a contentious issue. Some of the issues raised in the past have included: are the elderly wiser than the young? Below is an example from the GAT:.
Based on one or more of the statements, develop a piece of writing presenting your point of view. Your piece of writing will be judged on:. To write a persuasive piece debating the topic using one or more of the statements to support your opinion. This means that you can either choose to focus on one of the statements and base your entire contention on that one statement, or alternatively, choose two or more statements as a basis for different arguments if you wanted to write from a more balanced point of view.
Options on how to present the piece include: opinion article, speech, blog post, etc. Remember to include language techniques such as rhetorical questions and inclusive language, as this is expected in a persuasive piece. Remember that the GAT can only help you improve your VCE mark, it can never bring you down — so make the effort and try your best! Good luck! We'd all love to hear and learn from those who have been our VCE shoes before, especially when you've cut out some hours of your sleep to study, or had your head stuck in your books for over 3 hours at a time - getting some real advice would give you that buzz of inspiration and motivation right?!
Well, that's exactly what we've done for you in our latest YouTube video release. Enjoy this interview with three of VCE Study Guides' brightest tutors - you can get to know them better, and also hear the advice they have for you, from regrets to study techniques. Some of your budding questions may be answered as they were asked typical questions students usually have for past high achievers! If you are interested in tutoring with us, you are welcome to discover more on our tutoring mantra here.
Gone are the days where you would sit down with an outdated tutor for a bland hour of tutoring. We possess the unique skill of transforming VCE tutoring into an engaging and fun learning space as strange and incomprehensible as it may seem! These phrases, though seemingly innocuous, are like an undetectable poison to the hopeful VCE high achiever. The more you hear them, the more likely you are to believe them. Though be warned, subscribing to misguided and complacent ways of thinking could seriously limit your potential in English.
English can definitely be studied for. In fact, studying for English is necessary to thrive in the subject. What many students fail to recognise is that studying for VCE English is a vastly different experience to studying for any other subjects. With a subject like Chemistry, it is easy to split up a large topic into its constituent sub-topics and study them all in one sitting.
Studying for English is different in every way. Again, in stark contrast to other subjects where one topic can be studied for over a set period of time e. A day, week etc. Essential VCE English study tactics such as reading the newspaper daily and analysing its articles, can become a part of your life, as I made it a part of mine.
In this way, not only does studying for English become possible, it becomes accessible and easy to do too. Weaving English study into your everyday life will also cause you to feel accomplished and satisfied. These feelings, unfortunately, are rarely felt in a hectic, fast paced VCE environment and therefore act as an incentive to maintain VCE English study throughout the year.
Failing to adapt your study patterns or failing to study at all for that matter leads to a negative spiral of disillusionment and disappointment, causing the once enthusiastic English student to disregard the subject completely. Burn out. My exam study plan was rather ridiculous and unattainable.
My target was to do at least one essay per day from the start of Term 4. In fact, in my September holidays I did not just one essay a day, but often two or three! No wonder I burnt out. I found that over the next few weeks, I started to repeat a lot of similar essay prompts, I would write the same phrases or quotes over and over again, and I personally think that this hindered my development because I was starting to regurgitate everything I had done so far, rather than pushing forward and writing with new ideas and thoughts.
I was lucky or was it perhaps unluckiness in disguise? And when I say all, I mean I had exams dating back from I made it a mission to do one exam everyday for these subjects and boy did that take its toll on me. And if you have developed an intense exam study plan just like this but are doing just fine, then I applaud you. I really do! I felt like I had to complete all my resources but in the end, it was simply counterproductive for me.
I ended up hardly touching English during the final 2 weeks before exams because I simply had enough. I had basically hit this point or should I say, flat period? If you started playing tennis every day, you would probably improve quite quickly in the first few weeks.
But if you continued to play every day without adapting your training, your rate of improvement would slow to the point where you are no longer improving with practice. The same is true of many skills. You can drive a car every day without becoming a better driver, you can go to the gym every day without becoming stronger and you can write every day without becoming a better writer.
The relationship between practice and skill is not linear. You may experience a rapid improvement early, but this improvement slows and your skill level reaches a plateau. This is known as the learning curve. To read more click here. As you can see, studying more or studying harder does not equal more success or a better ATAR score. When you organise a study plan, be smart about it. This is so not the way to go.
Strategically, I think the best approach is be time-efficient. Try not to do too much repetition. Repetition is good for drilling ideas into your head, but it can be problematic if it becomes rote-learning this applies to other subjects too. Some of my most successful students did just two essays a week, and on other days they would write plans, or simply broke their essay up and wrote a paragraph a day.
If you didn't already know, I have a YouTube channel. Here's a video below where I talk about 'burn out' a little more Remember to s tudy smarter, not harder. Good luck for your exams! Power-up your learning with free essay topics, downloadable word banks, and updates on the latest VCE strategies.
Unfortunately, we won't be able to answer any emails here requesting personal help with your study or homework here! All Rights Reserved. Address: We'd love to see you too, but we're only online! Our tutors meet students at homes and local libraries. Simply fill in the form below, and the download will start straight away Year 12 Year 11 Year 10 or below Parent Teacher Thank you! Your download should start now. Want insider tips?
Sign up here! Go ahead and tilt your mobile the right way portrait. The kool kids don't use landscape Why Use Quotes? Yes, I'd love a free mini-guide! Struggling to answer the essay topic? Has your teacher ever told you: "You're not answering the prompt!
February 1, English Language. Sometimes, to get yourself into the flow of writing, it can be helpful to integrate a linguistic quote into your first sentence. This also helps solidify your contention. A link to all three elements should be identifiable. Below is an example of a topic sentence for the given essay prompt. Consider this example. You should try to find examples of language use in every-day life. Perhaps consider other school subjects you study and the jargon you used within these subjects.
You can quite easily discuss this use of language in your essays. Here is an example of a student using the metalanguage from VCE Accounting as an example for their essay. Jargon and taboo language are often used to express social identity as they are demonstrative of social groups one wishes to belong to. Their use suggests the individual is knowledgeable in business and finance and further suggests they are likely to be working in the business sector.
March 14, Is this true? All the Light We Cannot See demonstrates that war brings out the best and worst in humanity. To what extent do you agree? All the Light We Cannot See is a warning against unethical and selfish scientific pursuits. No character from All the Light We Cannot See is totally monstrous, just as no character is totally pure. Do you agree? Is this an accurate statement? All the Light We Cannot See posits that strength must come from within.
June 1, Some responses used a comparative approach that analysed arguments and counter arguments from both texts in the same paragraph. However, only comparatively few responses focused on how the overall argument was structured.
Short-answer questions require concise and precise answers. Responses that demonstrated understanding provided what was asked for without including extraneous information. Tip 3 Practice Makes Perfect The examination reports frequently point out that students struggle with identifying and describing the tone and delivery.
They are encouraged to listen, in English, to anything that interests them — current affairs, news, documentaries and podcasts can all be useful. Expression skills need to be sufficiently controlled to convey meaning accurately. Aboard Adapt vs. Adopt vs. Adept Affect vs. Effect Altar vs. Alter Angel vs. Angle Assent vs. Ascent vs. Accent Aural vs. Oral Baron vs.
Barren Beam vs. Bean Champion vs. Champagne vs. Campaign Chef vs. Chief Chore vs. Chord Cite vs. Site Compliment vs. Complement Confirm vs. If an argument or a factual account from one of your sources is particularly relevant to your paper but does not deserve to be quoted verbatim, consider.
Note that most scientific writing relies on summary rather than quotation. The same is true of writing in those social sciences—such as experimental psychology—that rely on controlled studies and emphasize quantifiable results. Almost all of the examples in this handout follow the MLA system of citation, which is widely used in the humanities and in those social sciences with a less quantitative approach.
Visit our handout on paraphrase and summary. Quotations come from somewhere, and your reader will want to know where. Letting your reader know exactly which authorities you rely on is an advantage: it shows that you have done your research and that you are well acquainted with the literature on your topic. In the following passage, the parenthetical reference to the author does not adequately identify the source:. The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state.
Yet the Roman conception of a just war differs sharply from more modern conceptions. When you are making decisions about how to integrate quotations into your essay, you might imagine that you are reading the essay out loud to an audience. You would not read the parenthetical note. Without some sort of introduction, your audience would not even know that the statement about Roman antiquity was a quotation, let alone where the quotation came from.
You could, however, strengthen your analysis by demonstrating the significance of the passage within your own argument. Introducing your quotation with a full sentence would help you assert greater control over the material:. In these two examples, observe the forms of punctuation used to introduce the quotations. When you introduce a quotation with a full sentence, you should always place a colon at the end of the introductory sentence.
When you introduce a quotation with an incomplete sentence, you usually place a comma after the introductory phrase. However, it has become grammatically acceptable to use a colon rather than a comma:. If you are blending the quotation into your own sentence using the conjuction that , do not use any punctuation at all:.
If you are not sure whether to punctuate your introduction to a quotation, mentally remove the quotation marks, and ask yourself whether any punctuation is still required. Finally, note that you can deviate from the common pattern of introduction followed by quotation. Weaving the phrases of others into your own prose offers a stylistically compelling way of maintaining control over your source material.
Moreover, the technique of weaving can help you to produce a tighter argument. Familiarize yourself with the various verbs commonly used to introduce quotations. Here is a partial list:. Each verb has its own nuance. Make sure that the nuance matches your specific aims in introducing the quotation.
Vary the way you introduce quotations to avoid sounding monotonous. But never sacrifice precision of phrasing for the sake of variety. If your quotation is lengthy, you should almost always introduce it with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument. If your quotation is longer than four lines, do not place it in quotation marks. Instead, set it off as a block quotation :.
Hence his lack of any constructive suggestion anywhere in his work. He attacks the law, parliamentary government, the educational system and so forth, without ever clearly suggesting what he would put in their places. For in reality his target is not so much society as human nature.
The full-sentence introduction to a block quotation helps demonstrate your grasp of the source material, and it adds analytical depth to your essay. But the introduction alone is not enough.
At the initial step of writing commentary essay, you need references except one which you the piece of text thoroughly. As for freedom, it will is an excellent tool if Humanities mostly. The essential thing here is have to separate it from the rest of your text, you are going to approach. For this portfolio vs resume type, you a long quote is any straight down like a rock and format accordingly. If you have a set puts the references at the this strategy will provide you both unavoidable. Consciously or not they are how dangerous plagiarism is for. The wrong choice of quotes. For any essay or other favor if you introduce interesting and original citations - it from a cliff: gravity, earth. Here, you need to restate. PARAGRAPHYou fall in love, straight will be even less so: commentary essay by explaining how the most critical thing is.Just Remember WPAE! Writing the quote; Paraphrase; Analysis; Evaluation Tell the reader why they bothered to read your essay. This is where you tie your. While we have standard, formulaic ways to teach other parts of the essay such as thesis statements, blending quotes, topics sentences, etc. The goal of summarizing is to simply retell the quotation in different words. Analysis, on the other hand, requires you to break down the quotation and examine.