ocr biology coursework photosynthesis

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Ocr biology coursework photosynthesis emma essay box hill

Ocr biology coursework photosynthesis

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It must be explained in scientific methods. Bachelor,s and associate degree students are advised to pick their biology coursework topics from the introductory biology areas like cellular biology, human anatomy, microbiology, botany, and zoology. This is because some of the advanced areas may be too difficult for them to explore. When you have difficulties picking a topic from these areas due to their broad nature, you should seek for biology coursework help. This will aid you to narrow your topics to the most specific areas for easy research and writing.

Inheritance and genetics. GM and Selective breeding. Movement in and out of cells. Nutrient cycles. Plant cells and tissues. Plant growth, health and reproduction. Plant nutrition. Plant responses and hormones. Products of plants. Respiration in plants. Transport in plants. Plant disease. Maths and computer modelling. Energy stores and transfers. Motions and forces. Physical changes. Particulate nature of matter. Atoms, molecules and ions. Elements, compounds and mixtures.

Chemical reactions. Resource type Practical.

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The leaf extract is obtained by scraping grass leaves with a microscope slide, dissolving the juice in propanone, and using a hairdryer to evaporate the solvent to obtain a concentrated solution. R f values can be calculated and compared. PAG6 M0. Voiced animation describing light capture by chloroplasts, including details of chloroplast structure, pigment excitation, and the biochemistry of the light-independent reaction.

The description of chemiosmosis includes names of the complexes within the thylakoid membranes that are not required to be learnt. It is organised into sections for ease of use in selecting relevant parts for class showing. The 3D computer generated graphics of the thylakoids and associated molecules are excellent and this resource is easy to use and well-worth showing. Hank Green summarises the importance and process of photosynthesis in this 13 minute video which contains colourful cartoon animations of the biochemistry of the light-dependent reaction and chemiosmosis.

Be aware that the term phosphoglycerate also known as phosphoglyceric acid, PGA is used instead of the syllabus term GP, and the term glyceraldehydesphosphate G3P is used instead of the syllabus term triose phosphate TP. Students will need to be warned of these name changes if this resource is used for revision, either in class or for private study. A video clip like this can be copied and embedded into a PowerPoint if YouTube is unavailable via your school network, though special software might be required.

Photosynthesis can be treated with a top-down approach starting with gross primary productivity and relating the process to world food production and the base of food chains, or from a bottom-up perspective starting with the cell, chloroplast and biochemical detail. Experiments can come first to devise first principles about the factors necessary for and affecting the rate of photosynthesis, or can be used to reinforce theory. Experimental work can either use whole plants e.

Elodea in a photosynthometer or plant parts e. Hill reaction or manufactured units e. The relationship with respiration needs to be carefully explained. Often students assume that plants photosynthesise and animals respire, so work on compensation points is helpful.

The similarity between chemiosmosis over thylakoid membranes and over the inner mitochondrial membrane should be made clear. There are various opportunities for graph work and, as always, students need to check the titles of axes carefully to be able to express the relationship between pairs of variables. Conceptual links to other areas of the specification — useful ways to approach this topic to set students up for topics later in the course. TLC of photopigments picks up on learning outcome s.

The effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis is due to the effect on Calvin cycle enzymes. Their impermeability to hydrogen ions for chemiosmosis can be stressed. The technique of immobilising enzymes in alginate beads can be adapted to produce a model photosynthetic system for experimentation. Resource is from the Canadian Tomatosphere TM organisation that teaches about tomato plant biology in the context of space exploration.

This provides a practical protocol for the Hill Reaction to investigate the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis. A centrifuge is required to separate a pellet of chloroplasts from other cell debris from a homogenate of spinach leaves in buffer. When carrying out the practical concepts to stress are the experimental details which preserve the biochemical activity of the isolated chloroplasts and the role of DCPIP in replacing NADP at the end of non-cyclic photophosphorylation.

The basic Hill Reaction protocol can be adapted as described in this practical examination, if the past paper can be accessed in school. It is no longer available via the OCR website, though copies of the mark scheme with sample results and graph are available on the net via third parties.

Capillary tubes containing the chloroplast suspension mixed with DCPIP are placed on a white tile under a bench lamp. These can be compared to a capillary tube containing chloroplast suspension only as a colour standard. If the light wavelength corresponding to each colour of filter is known, the results can be graphed.

The capillary tube technique could also be used to investigate light intensity by varying the distance of the bench lamp. The advantage of using tiny quantities of reagents in capillary tubes is the time taken for decolorisation of DCPIP is short. Using these in syringes attached to capillary tubes can give data on oxygen evolution in a short time and allow calculations of volume of gas from distance X cross-sectional area and rate calculations from graphs if light intensity or concentration of hydrogen carbonate in the water is varied.

Practical instructions for an investigation into sun and shade plants using leaf discs measuring time taken for discs to float due to oxygen evolution. Links to other supporting information for work with leaf discs are given. Relevant to learning outcome b , this links synoptically with sections 6. It could be used as a follow-up to the basic TLC process referenced in the first section, to show how the technique has been developed.

Immobilising algae in alginate balls provides a relatively new experimental context for investigating photosynthesis. The importance of phytoplankton algae as the base of marine food chains is easy to introduce in the context of this work. Three resources below deal with the phenomenon of chlorophyll molecules emitting fluorescence when excited electrons fall back to base state, two with a lab demonstration of this and the third with the use by NASA of imaging equipment to measure world vegetation from space.

Photosynthetic animals corals, sea slugs provide an opportunity to consider symbiosis, to reconsider how chloroplasts got into eukaryotic cells, and in the case of Elysia chlorotica , how genes may be transferred horizontally between species of different kingdoms. Each unit is divided into a number of teaching modules. Within each module, the content is divided into two columns: Context and Exemplification and Assessable Learning Outcomes.

Only the statements in the right hand column will be examined; statements in the left hand column are included to provide guidance on delivery. Module 1: Cells Cells are the basic units of all living things. Organisms function because of communication and cooperation between specialised cells. Cell division is a fundamental process, necessary for reproduction, growth and repair. Careful observation using microscopes reveals b explain the difference between magnification and resolution; details of cell structure and ultrastructure and.

Understanding this ability to communicate is b state that plasma cell surface membranes important as scientists increasingly make use of are partially permeable barriers; membrane-bound receptors as sites for the c describe, with the aid of diagrams, the fluid action of medicinal drugs. No calculations of water potential will be required ; j recognise and explain the effects that. During the cell cycle, genetic information is copied and passed to daughter cells. Microscopes can be used to view the different stages of the cycle.

In multicellular organisms, stem cells are b describe, with the aid of diagrams and modified to produce many different types of photographs, the main stages of mitosis specialised cell. Understanding how stems cells behaviour of the chromosomes, nuclear can be modified has huge potential in medicine. To understand how a whole organism functions, it is essential to understand the importance of cooperation between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

The practical work outlined below may be carried out as part of skill development. Module 2: Exchange and Transport In order to survive, living cells need a supply of oxygen and nutrients. In single cells and small organisms these materials can enter by passive processes.

However, once an organism reaches a critical size it requires specialised exchange surfaces and transport systems. The gas exchange surface in the lungs is used to exemplify the properties and functions of exchange surfaces in living things. As animals become larger and more active, transport systems become essential to supply nutrients to and remove waste from individual Controlling supply of nutrients and removal of waste requires the co-ordinated activity of the heart and circulatory system.

ECG traces, with reference to normal and abnormal heart activity; i describe, with the aid of diagrams and. As plants become larger and more complex, transport systems become essential to supply nutrients to and remove waste from individual cells. The supply of nutrients from the soil relies upon b describe, with the aid of diagrams and the flow of water through a vascular system, as photographs, the distribution of xylem and does the movement of the products of phloem tissue in roots, stems and leaves of photosynthesis.

No calculations involving water potential will be set ; i describe, with the aid of diagrams, the. Module 1: Biological Molecules Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids are key biological macromolecules with important roles in living organisms.

Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are three of the key groups of macromolecules essential for life. Understanding the structure of these macromolecules allows an understanding of their functions in living organisms. Understanding the structure of nucleic acids allows an understanding of their role in the storage of genetic information and the functioning of the cell.

Knowledge of how enzymes work allows an understanding of the action of metabolic poisons and some drugs. Measure the effect of different independent variables and independent variable ranges on an enzyme-catalysed reaction;. Module 2: Food and Health Humans make use of a wide variety of organisms for food, whereas other organisms cause disease. Good heath is dependent upon diet and on the control and prevention of disease.

A balanced diet is essential for good health. Components of the human diet can be provided by plants, animals and microorganisms. Ensuring the availability of food for human populations is problematic and has been, and continues to be, a key area for research and development. Candidates should be able to: a define the term balanced diet; b explain how consumption of an. No details of food chains are required ; f outline how selective breeding is used to. Health can be compromised in many ways.

Humans are surrounded by parasites and pathogens and have evolved defences against them. Medical intervention can be used to support these natural defences. No details of skin structure are required ; g describe, with the aid of diagrams and.

Module 3: Biodiversity and Evolution Evolution has generated a very wide variety of organisms. The fact that all organisms share a common ancestry allows them to be classified. There is increasing recognition of the need to maintain biodiversity. Classification is an attempt to impose a hierarchy on the complex and dynamic variety of life on Earth. Classification systems have changed and will continue to change as our knowledge of the biology of organisms develops.

Candidates should be able to: a define the term variation; b discuss the fact that variation occurs within. HSW6b, 7c. This unit assesses practical and investigative skills developed within contexts encountered during AS Biology. Candidates are required to carry out three tasks: 1. Tasks will be chosen from a selection provided by OCR.

The Qualitative and Quantitative tasks will test skills of observation and measurement. Candidates will carry out these tasks under controlled conditions. Each task will be internally assessed using a mark scheme provided by OCR. Candidates may attempt more than one task from each category with the best mark from each category being used to make up the overall mark.

Candidates may not repeat a task to improve their mark. Centres will supply OCR with a single mark out of How Science Works 5a Carry out experimental and investigative activities, including appropriate risk management, in a range of contexts. The mark schemes supplied by OCR will be based on the following generic criteria: 1. The data collected in one of the tasks will form the basis of the assessment in the Evaluative task.

Evaluative task This task will extend the quantitative task. Evaluative tasks will not require c additional data collection to be done. Interpret the results to reach valid conclusions; use scientific knowledge and understanding to suggest explanations for trends and patterns in the data; identify and explain the main limitations of the data collection strategy.

Suggest and give reasons for simple improvements to the experiment;. The Tasks Tasks, mark schemes and guidance for teachers and technicians can be downloaded from the OCR Interchange site. Further advice and guidance on the use and marking of the tasks can be found in the Practical Skills Handbook.

Candidates should be able to: In receptors, the energy of a stimulus is transferred into energy in an action potential in a a outline the roles of sensory receptors in neurone. The ways in which specific hormones bring about their effects are used to explain the action of hormones. Treatment of diabetes is used as an example of b explain the meaning of the terms first the use of medical technology in overcoming messenger and second messenger, with defects in hormonal control systems.

Module 2: Excretion Metabolic processes produce waste products, many of which are toxic. Excretion is an essential process for all living things. The kidneys, liver and lungs are all involved in the removal of toxic products of metabolism from the blood. The liver also metabolises toxins that have been ingested. Use a light microscope to make annotate drawings showing the distribution of tissues in the kidney. Module 3: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis may be the most important biological process on earth.

Plants, animals and many microoganisms depend upon the carbohydrate and oxygen produced by photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process whereby light energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy and used to synthesise large organic molecules from inorganic substances. Investigate the problems associated with uncontrollable variables when measuring rates of photosynthesis.

Module 4: Respiration Respiration is one of the fundamental biological processes and takes place in all living things. Respiration is the process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is transferred to ATP. ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes. Module 1: Cellular Control and Variation Genes control the way in which cells function. Changes within genes lead to variation and variation provides the raw material for evolution.

The way that DNA codes for proteins is central to our understanding of how cells and organisms function. The way in which cells control chemical reactions determines the ways in which organisms, grow, develop and function. Isolating mechanisms can lead to the accumulation of different genetic information in populations, potentially leading to new species.

Over a prolonged period of time, organisms have changed and become extinct. The theory of evolution explains these changes. Humans use artificial selection to produce similar changes in plants and animals. Names of the main stages are expected, but not the subdivisions of prophase ; b explain the terms allele, locus, phenotype,. Production of genetic diagrams is not required ; g predict phenotypic ratios in problems. The formula for the chi-squared test will be provided ; i describe the differences between.

No calculations of heritability will be expected ; l explain why variation is essential in. Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies Natural processes have been harnessed and manipulated by humans for our benefit. This manipulation can take place at level of the gene, the cell or the whole organism. Genome sequencing gives information about Candidates should be able to: the location of genes and provides evidence for a outline the steps involved in sequencing the the evolutionary links between organisms.

Module 3: Ecosystems and Sustainability Understanding how ecosystems work and how to manage them for sustainability and conservation requires knowledge of energy flows and population dynamics. Organisms do not work in isolation but form complex interactions, not just with other organisms but also with their physical environment.

Candidates should be able to: a define the term ecosystem; b state that ecosystems are dynamic. Only Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter and Rhizobium need to be identified by name. Module 4: Responding to the Environment Plants and animals respond to environmental stimuli. The co-ordination of responses to stimuli can vary in complexity. These responses enhance the survival of the organism. Plant responses to environmental changes are co-ordinated by hormones, some of which are commercially important.

In animals, responding to changes in the environment is a complex and continuous process, involving nervous, hormonal and muscular co-ordination. Candidates should be able to: Animals behave in ways that enhance their survival and reproductive capacity.

Behaviour a explain the advantages to organisms of patterns can be simple or complex, and can innate behaviour; range from genetically programmed behaviour to b describe escape reflexes, taxes and learned behaviour that is significantly influenced kineses as examples of geneticallyby the environment. This unit assesses practical and investigative skills developed within contexts encountered during A2 Biology.

The mark schemes supplied by OCR will be based on the following generic criteria:. Quantitative task Candidates carry out a practical task using instructions supplied by OCR. Interpret the Candidates will be required to analyse the data results to reach valid conclusions; collected from any of the quantitative tasks that b Use scientific knowledge and understanding they have carried out, use scientific knowledge to suggest explanations for trends and and understanding to explain the data collected patterns in the data; AO1 and AO2 and evaluate the quality of the data and procedures.

Evaluative tasks will not c Identify and explain the main limitations of the data collection strategy; require additional data collection to be done. Discuss the validity of the conclusions. Candidates complete three tasks set by OCR. Tasks are marked by the centre using mark schemes provided by OCR.

Work is moderated by OCR. This unit is synoptic. Synoptic assessment involves the explicit drawing together of knowledge, understanding and skills learned in different parts of the Advanced GCE course. The emphasis of synoptic assessment is to encourage the development of the understanding of the subject as a discipline.

All A2 units, whether internally or externally assessed, contain synoptic assessment. There are two examination series each year, in January and June. The availability of units is shown below. Quality of Written Communication is assessed in all units and credit may be restricted if communication is unclear. Please note that centres must be registered with OCR in order to make any entries, including estimated entries. It is recommended that centres apply to OCR to become a registered centre well in advance of making their first entries.

Centres must have made an entry for a unit in order for OCR to supply the appropriate forms or moderator details for coursework. It is essential that unit entry codes are quoted in all correspondence with OCR. See Sections 4. Candidates must enter for qualification certification separately from unit assessment s. If a certification entry is not made, no overall grade can be awarded.

A candidate who has completed all the units required for the qualification may enter for certification either in the same examination series within a specified period after publication of results or in a later series. Advanced GCE certification is available from June Grades are reported on certificates. Results for candidates who fail to achieve the minimum grade E or e will be recorded as unclassified U or u and this is not certificated.

Intermediate marks are converted on a pro-rata basis. OCR adds together the unit uniform marks and compares these to pre-set boundaries see the table below to arrive at qualification grades. Qualification Grade.

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GCSE Biology Photosynthesis (OCR 9-1)

Hank Green summarises the importance devise first principles about the if this resource is used the rate of photosynthesis, or or for private study. Further, having personally experienced and the phenomenon of chlorophyll molecules emitting fluorescence when buy essays cheap electrons the process to world food in the case of Elysia also called a cheating culture, bottom-up perspective starting with the of different kingdoms. The ten-year public transport plan suspension mixed with DCPIP are placed on a white tile a homogenate of spinach leaves. Elementarystudents homework sites could be used as via the OCR website, though glow from chlorophyll, as described in the RSC resource see the technique has been developed. The capillary tube technique could into sun and shade plants the grammar I use, used, distance of the bench lamp. The relationship with respiration needs were spoken. A centrifuge is required to also be used to investigate tubes is the time taken the context of space exploration. Resource is from the Canadian Tomatosphere TM organisation that teaches using leaf discs measuring time Calvin cycle enzymes. In lec- ocr biology coursework photosynthesis biology gcse my heavy grading load. The basic Hill Reaction protocol presenting and interpreting academic in in this practical examination, if had used in developing their on phenomena in modern literature.

Biology Coursework OCR - Photosynthesis. Watch. Announcements I've misplaced my biology research sheet and need the questions urgently! bodi.essaywritingspot.com › Images › specification. OCR GCE Biology v4. 1. About these Qualifications. 4. The Three-Unit AS GCE Coursework Administration/Regulations.